ROMANS AND THE TORAH:
A Suggested Correlation to the Nisan Cycle, Year 1

Return to Index    (Quotations are in bold face)

ROMANS    
1.1-19     (See below this correlation: Romans 1.1-20)
 .20 Gen 1 'the creation of the world'
 .23   l.26-28 'changed the glory ...of God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man ...'
 .24-25   3 'exchanged the truth of  God for a lie' [// serpent]
 .28-32   4 'full of envy, murder, strife, deceit' [// Cain, Lamech]
2.13 Gen [5.24; 6.8], 6.9, 22  'righteous before God, ... the doers of a law shall be accounted righteous'
      [// Enoch, Noah]
 .25-29   7.1-6 'circumcision' (Jews) vs uncircumcision (Gentiles) [// 'clean' and 'umclean' animals - cf. Acts 10.12-16, 28: Peter's vision of 'clean' and 'unclean' animals related to Gentiles being called 'clean' by God
3.2 Gen 7.1-5 'entrusted with the oracles of God' [?// Noah]
 .4   7.23 'Let God be true' [Gen 7.23 fulfills God's word in Gen 7.4]
 .9   8.21 'all under sin' [?// 'imagination of man's heart is evil']
 .25   9.3-6 'expiation ... by his blood' [// shedding of blood]
 .29   10-11 'God is the ... God of Gentiles also' [// genealogy of all nations narrowing down to Abraham]
4.1 Gen 12.1 ff. 'Abraham our forefather'
 .3 Gen 15.6 'Abraham believed God ...reckoned to him for righteousness'
 .11   17.10-11 'he received the sign of circumcision
 .18 Gen 15.5 'so shall thy seed be'
 .19   17.17 'he being about one hundred years old'
 .19b   18.11 'the deadness of Sarah's womb'
 .21   18.14 'he [=God] was able also to perform' ('Is anything too hard for the LORD?'
5.3 Gen 19-21 'let us also rejoice in our tribulations' [?// Lot & Sodom; Abraham & Abimelech; Sarah & Hagar]
 .1 Gen 2.1-3 'peace with God [// God's rest on seventh day; rest = peace]
 .2   1.26-28 'hope of the glory of God' [ for Paul: 'glory' = 'image' = 'Body of Christ' = 'temple']
 .5   2.7 'Holy Spirit given to us' [// God breathes breath into Adam]
 .12a   2.17; 3.6b, 19  'through one man sin entered the world ... death through sin'
6.4 Gen 7-8 'buried with him through baptism into hi death' [?// Flood]
 .6   7-8 'the body of sin might be done away'
 .9   9.15 'Christ dies no more' [?// no more flood to destroy all flesh]
7 Pentecost, 6th Sivan, Giving of the Law (N1: Gen 12-17; N2: Exod 20, The Decalogue given on Sinai
8.3 Gen 22 'God sending his own Son ... for sin' [// Binding of Isaac]
 .11   22 & 1 'He that raise up Christ Jesus from the dead' [Isaac/Adam]
 .18-19   1.26-28 'glory'  'redemption of our body'  'image of his Son'
 .32   22 'spared not his own Son' [// binding of Isaac]
 .34   22 & 1 'Christ Jesus ... was raised from the dead' [Isaac/Adam]
9.4 Pentecost: Giving of the Law: Deut 14.1 ('Israelites' - T3 to N1: Gen 220
 .7-8 Pentecost 'Abraham's seed' (Gen 12-17 - 'seed' chapters read in Sivan)
 .9 Gen 21.12 'According to this season ... Sarah shall have a son'
 .10 Gen 25.21 'Rebecca also having conceived ... by our Father Isaac'
 .12 Gen 25.23 'The elder shall serve the younger'
 .15 Exod 33.19 (N2 to N1:Gen 27.28) 'I will have mercy on whom I will ...'
 .27 Isa 10.22 f.; Gen 22.17 'as the sand of the sea'  ('as the sand which is on the seashore' - Gen 22.17)
 .29 Isa 1.9; Deut 29.23 (T3 to N1: Gen 34.2) 'become as Sodom and ... like unto Gomorrah' ('like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah' - Deut 29.23
10.5 Lev 18.5 (read on Day of Atonement, 10th Tishri, approximately N!: Gen 35.9) 'the man that does the righteousness of the Law shall live thereby'
   .6 Deut 30.12 f. (T3 to N1: Gen 34.2) 'Who shall ascend to heaven ...?' (// 'Who shall go up for us to heaven')
   .8 Deut 30.14 'The word is nigh thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart'
   .14     'How shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?'
  Gen 35.7 'There God was revealed to him [i.e., Jacob]
Gen 35.11 'I am God Most High (El Ely˘n)'
ROMANS 11-12 ARE BASED ON THE JOSEPH STORY, GENESIS 35-50. (See note at end)
11.1 Gen 35.18, 24 'of the tribe of Benjamin'
   .5 45.7 'a remnant' (God sent me ... to preserve you a remnant')
   .11 37.11 'to provoke them to jealousy' (// 'his brethren envied him')
   .11 41.57 'by their full salvation unto the Gentiles' ('all countries')
   .14 37.11 'provoke to jealousy'  (// 'his brethren envied him')
37.37 'my flesh' (// 'he is our brother, our flesh')
45.7 'may save some of them' (// 'to save you alive by a great deliverance)
   .15 45.28; 46.30  'receiving life from the dead' (// Jacob re Joseph)
   .16 Deut 26.2, 10 'firstfruit' (Deut 26.1 N3 to N1:Gen 49.27)
Num 15.18-21 'dough' (Num 15.1 T3 to N1: Gen 44.18)
   .23 Gen 45.3-5 'if they continue not in their unbelief, they shall be grafted in' (// Joseph reveals self to brothers, who hang back)
   .25 Gen 45.1 'I would not, brethren, have you be unknowing' (// 'Joseph made himself known unto his brethren')
   .26 45.7 'all Israel shall be saved'  (// 'to save you alive by a great deliverance')
   .33 Deut 29.29 (N3 to N1: Exod 3.1) 'how unsearchable are his judgements' (// 'The secret things belong unto the LORD our God') 
12.1 Lev 19.2 (N2 to N1: Gen 46.28) 'a living sacrifice, holy' (// 'You shall be holy')
   .3 Exod
Gen
2.14
41
'not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think' (// Hebrews to Moses: 'Who made thee a prince and judge over us?'; Joseph elevated by Pharaoh)
   .8 Exod 25.2 (T2 to N1: Gen 49.27) 'give aid with zeal' (// every man's willing offering for making the tabernacle)
   .10 'In love of the brothers be tenderly affectioned one to another'
Gen 50.17: 'Forgive the transgression of thy brothers' (Joseph and brothers)
Gen 50.21: 'He spoke kindly to them' (Joseph and brothers)
   .12 'Patient in tribulation; steadfast in prayer' (? Joseph in Gen 39-41)
   .13 'communication to the necessity of the saints, given to hospitality'
Gen 43.24-34: Joseph's hospitality to his brothers, including Benjamin
   .14 'Bless them that persecute you' (Joseph and brothers)
   .15 Gen 45.14 f.; 50.17 f. 'Weep with them that weep' (Joseph and brothers)
   .16 'Set not mind on high things, but condescend to things that are lowly' 
Gen 41, 45: Joseph as prince (41) accepts brothers (45)
   .17 Gen 50.17 (45.5) 'render no man evil for evil' (Joseph and brothers)
   .19 Gen 50.17 (45.5) 'avenge not yourselves' (Joseph and brothers)
   .20 Gen 45.11 'If thine enemy hunger, feed him' (Joseph and brothers)
13.12 Gen 1 'the night is far spent, the day is at hand' (darkness - light)
   .13 Gen 1 'walk ... as in the Day, not in reviling and drunkenness' (? Passover: carousing after the Passover Supper was forbidden)
    .14 Gen 1.26-28 'put on the Lord Jesus Christ' (? the image of God)
14.4 Exod 2.14 'Who art thou that judgest the servant of another?' (?// 'Who made thee a ... judge over us?')  ? Exod 12.21: 'Go, serve the LORD'
   .9  Exod 11-12 'To this end Christ died and lived' 9'Christ our Passover' as in 1 Cor)
15.1 Exod 3.11 'We ought to bear infirmities of others and not please ourselves' (// 'Who am I that ... I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?')
   .8 Exod 3.15 'The promises given to the fathers' (// 'The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, ... of Isaac, and ... of Jacob')
   .18-19 Exod 3.20; 7.8-14.31 'those things which Christ wrought through me ... in the power of 
signs and wonders' [The only occurrence of the phrase 'signs and wonders' in Romans; elsewhere in Paul only in 2 Cor 12.12 (not counting 2 Thess 2.9, which is not by Paul -see Pauline Authorship
   .27 Exod 12.36 'If Gentiles have been mad partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to minister to them in physical things' ('The LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians so they let them have what they asked')
   .31 'That I may be delivered from them that are disobedient in Jerusalem'
(? Passover deliverance of Israel from Egyptians)
   .32 Gen 2.1-3? 'that I may come to you ... and together with you find rest'

        In Romans Paul agonizes over the unbelief of his fellow-Jews.  The Jews were intended to be the means whereby God would bring all people to knowledge of himself.  God's purpose was not fulfilled  by the Jews, for by failing to fulfil the Law, they caused the name of God to be blasphemed among the Gentiles (2.24).  What was now to happen to the Jews?  The answer that Paul develops is that God has now reversed their roles, so that the mercy shown to the Gentiles and manifested among all those in Christ shall become the cause of bringing the Jews to God's mercy (1.31).  On the basis of the OT references we have deduced for Rom 11, it would appear that Paul either reached this understanding, or at least has given expression to it, on the basis of reflection on Joseph, the 'wise' one (Gen 41.38 f.), rejected by his brothers, as God's agent of deliverance of all Israel (Gen 45.4-8).  Note also that Christians are to act like Joseph in Rom 12.
        (We may note in passing that Mark, Matthew and Luke also appear to use Joseph typology for Jesus.)

Romans 1.1-20: A Suggested Correlation with Jewish Synagogue Lectionary Usage
There are special readings for the four Sabbaths of Adar and the feast of Purim (14th-15th Adar)

Sabbath Shekalim: Original readings: Num 28.1-8; Ezek 45.12.
  Later (in 1st cent. CE): Exod 30.11-16; 2 Kings 11.17 (MT: 12.5-6).
Sabbath Zachor: Deut 25.17-19; 1 Sam 15.2.
Purim (14th-15th Adar): Exod 17.8-16 if a weekday; Judges 5.14 if on Sabbath.
Sabbath Parah: Num 19.1; Ezek 36.25; ? 1 Kings 4.33 f. (MT: 5.13).
Sabbath Hachodesh: Exod 12.1-20; Ezek 45.18.

Torah Sedarim with Prophetic Haphtaroth for first Sabbath in Nisan:

  N1 N2 N3 T1 T2 T2
TSS: Gen 11 Exod 11.1 Num 6.22# Gen 27.1* Exod 34.1 Num 32.1
HH: Isa 45.18 (-25?); Isa 65.17-25 Mic 7.15-Nah 1.7; Hag 2.6 (?) ? Mal 1.9-2.7 (omit 1.12-14?)  1 Sam 4.15; Josh 23.1 Hab 2.2 Josh 22.22

# - Num 6.22 (not 8.1) is TS for 1st Sabbath in Nisan of N3 according to Exod 40.2.
* - Gen 27.1 (not 27.28) is TS for 1st Sabbath in Nisan in T1 in the usage reflected in the Lukan infancy narrative (cf. reproduction of C. F. Ruddick's work on Luke 1-2 in Luke-Acts materials -
Luke 1-2 as paralleling Genesis 27-43), which places Gen 27.1 against Luke 1.11 ff., and notice the Gen 1.1 motif of Luke 1.2: 'from the beginning'; thus for Luke Gen 1.1 is N! to T1 of Gen 27.1).

Romans
1.5 'among all the nations for his name's sake'
Ezek 36.24 (Sabbath Parah): 'I do not [this] for your sake, O house of Israel, but for mine holy name, which ye have profaned among the nations whither ye went.'
Mal 1.11-12 (H to Num 6.22): .my name is great among the Gentiles, ... but ye profane it ...'
1.9b 'I make remembrance of you unceasingly.'
Exod 30.16b (Sabbath Shekalim): [half-shekel temple tax] that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the LORD....'
Deut 25.17-19 (Sabbath Zachor): 'Remember what Amalek did to thee, ... thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget.'
(1 Sam 15.2 [Sabbath Zachor]: concerns attacking Amalek)
Exod 17.14 (Purim): 'Write this for a memorial in a book, ... that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.'
(Judges 5.14 [Purim] concerns Amalek by name)
1.17b Citing Hab 2.4 (H to Exod 34.1)
1.18 'For the wrath from heaven is revealed against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold down the truth in unrighteousness'
See notes on Wrath in the NT for reasons for omitting 'wrath of God' from Rom 1.8.
Num 32.10-14 (T3): 'And the LORD's anger was kindled in that day [against the ten false witnesses, but not Caleb and Joshua]'
v. 13: the generation that had done evil was consumed.
v. 14: 'And behold, ye are risen up in your fathers' stead, an increase of sinful men, to augment yet the fierce anger of the LORD toward Israel.'
Gen 271. (T1): Jacob deceives Esau; vv. 44-45: Esau's anger against Jacob.
Mic 7.18: anger of LORD
Nah 1.2: wrath; 1.7: He knows those that put their trust in him.
1.19-32 Cf. Wisdom 13-15
1.19 'that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God manifested it unto them.'
Exod 34.1: Second set of tables on stone (in Jewish tradition this was the complete Torah, written and oral).
1.20 'invisible clearly seen'
Gen 27.1: Jacob blind; 1 Sam 4.15: Eli blind.

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