"Recognized" Ministry in the New Testament

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Warning: These notes, produced in India in 1976, are very incomplete.  They do no more than highlight a few important aspects of the New Testament concerning a 'recognized' or 'set-apart' ministry.
        There are four sections to the notes:
                I.  Regarding some terms used for ministers.
               II.  Conditions for itinerant evangelists.
              III.  A three-fold 'humanity-forming' ministry in Pauline and Matthaean churches.
               IV.  Stress on the need to continue Jewish-Christian ethos and leadership.

I.  Regarding some terms used:
A. (1) Paul, ca. 52 CE, in a received tradition, 1 Cor 15.5 ff.,  
clearly appears to distinguish two separate individuals and three separate groups:
(a) (Cephas),
(b) The Twelve,
(c) The Brethren,
(d) (James),
(e) The Apostles (and Paul)
(For Paul apostle means a Church-founder, hence his strong association of himself with this last group.)
1 Cor 9.5, which is Paul's independent writing (i.e., not a received tradition),
 appears to corroborate that Paul himself accepts the above distinctions (whatever they may mean), for he there refers to:
(a) 'We [and] ... the other apostles
(b) and the Brothers of the Lord
(c) and Cephas.'
(2) We then see these being coalesced in the Gospels:
(i) Original disciples called apostles:
Mk 6.30, but only in passing (ca. 65-70 CE)
Mt 10.2 (ca. 80-85 CE)
Lk 6.13 and passim (ca. 85-95 CE)
(ii) Disciples called 'brethren'  (of the raised Lord):
Mt 28.10; Jn 20.17 (ca 90-100 CE)
(This may be related to the vindication motif of Ps 22, a 'passion psalm', for Ps 22.22a: I will tell of thy name to my brethren', would be the counterbalance to Ps 22.1a: 'My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?')
(iii) 'The Twelve' solidly equated with 'The Apostles' in Lk-Ac (only in Ac 14.4 and 14.14 are Paul and Barnabas twice and twice only [grudgingly?] called apostles).
B. Acts of the Apostles (ca. 85-90 CE)
(1) No uniform, codified picture of ministry.
(2) Ac 1.15-26: 'The Twelve' (= nucleus of Israel)
carefully reconstituted by election of Matthias as an eyewitness of Jesus from his baptism to ascension.
(3) Ac 8.1: The Apostles alone remain in Jerusalem 
when all the rest of the Church is scattered; they set their seal of approval on every missionary advance of the Church:
 8.14-17 (Samaria);
9.27 (Paul as converted) - apostles and brethren
11.1-18 (table fellowship with Gentiles at Caesarea) - apostles and brethren
15.1 ff. (only Noahic covenant conditions demanded of Gentile converts - apostles and elders.
[Note: Ac 16.4 is the last time 'apostles' are mentioned in acts.]
(4) Ac 6.1-7: Choosing The Seven
(a) This is not about the origins of the deaconate; it seems more likely it is concerned with the origins of the presbyterate.
(b) The Twelve, wishing to keep to prayer and preaching (6.2-4), ask that seven men be chosen to handle food distribution so that they will not have to do so.
(c) But from here on in Acts Peter is the only one of The Twelve who ever again does evangelical preaching, and even then he is cut short by the Holy Spirit (Ac 10.44 - Cornelius' house).
(d) Instead, it is members of the Seven who preach (Stephen, Ac 6.8-7.53) and evangelize (Philip, Ac 8.4-40), followed then by Paul (often with Barnabas) for the rest of the book, Ac 9.20 ff.
(5) Ac 13.1: Prophets and Teachers at Antioch set apart Paul and Barnabas,
who are subsequently (twice only) called Apostles, Ac 14.4, 14.

[This rather spread out association of Prophets, Teachers and Apostles, with these 'apostles' having been set apart by those whom Paul places below apostles (1 Cor 12.28), may perhaps represent an intentional inversion of Paul's order and Paul's strenuous claim to be an 'apostle'.  Note that in Acts Paul 'hears' the Lord, but does not 'see' him, Ac 9.3-5 (on road to Damascus), retold in 22.6-11 and 26.12-18.  This is contrary to Paul's claim to have seen the Lord, 1 Cor 9.1; 15.8.]

C. Ministry in the Pastoral Epistles (ca. 100 CE)
(1) Pastoral Epistles (an early form of 'Church Order' in part, especially 1 Tim)
appear to be chiastic in structure (i.e., elements A, B, C, D, ... N are repeated in reverse order: N', ... D', C', B', A') (See: The Pastoral Epistles: Their Structure)
(2) Probable order of writing: 2 Tim, Titus, 1 Tim.
(3) 1 Tim:
The section on the bishop (3.1-7) corresponds to the section on the presbyters (7.17-23)
The section on the deacons (3.8-13) corresponds to the section on the widows (5.3-16).
Thus we have: presbyter-bishops (collegial, and a single office); deacons (male) and widows (female) probably are equivalent to each other.
(4) Philippians (ca. 65 CE, by disciple of Paul very soon after Paul's martyrdom) (See Pauline Authorship)
1.1: Addressed (in part) to 'bishops and deacons' in the church at Philippi.
II.  Conditions for Itinerant Evangelists:
A. Background to problem:
(1) Jewish teachers of Torah were always expected to 'work their own way' in a 'tent-making' type ministry.
(2) Greek teachers of philosophy were always expected to receive at least room and board, and perhaps more.
B. The Problem:  Thus as the Church moved out into the Gentile world (also inhabited by Jews) a conflict arose:
(1) If they were true teachers of God's true Torah, they should earn their own way (Jewish view).
(2) If they were teaching any 'philosophy' worth having, then naturally they were only worth paying attention to if they were paid (Greek view).
C. NT answers to the problem:
(1) Paul, 1 Cor 9.1 ff. (ca. 52 CE): apostles (i.e. itinerant evangelists, that is, church-founders)
(a) have right to food and drink (9.4);
(b) have right to be accompanied by Christian wife (9.5);
(c) but Paul and Barnabas also have right to earn their own way (9.6).
I.e., Paul argues for both possibilities, and he is the only one in the NT to argue also for the right to take along one's wife (provided she is a Christian).
(2) Mk 6.7-11 (65-70 CE):
Expect to receive bread, money, shelter and new clothes when needed ('take only one cloak'); 'wear sandals'; 'take staff'.
(3) Mt 10.9-15 (ca. 80-85 CE): is even stronger: take no shoes, no staff, etc.
(4) Lk 10.4-11 (ca. 85-90 CE): 'carry no purse, no wallet, no shoes' (i.e. spare shoes)
(5) I.e., Mk, Mt & LK opt for the 'Greek philosopher position'.
III.  A three-fold 'humanity-forming' ministry in the Pauline and Matthaean churches:   (See Wisdom, Power and Well-being)
A. Paul (ca. 52 CE)
1 Cor 12.28, 29: Apostles Prophets Teachers
13.13: Love Hope Faith
1 Cor 13 1 Cor 14 1 Cor 15
3.10: Paul as 'wise', teaching 'wisdom' - i.e., apostle's job
B. Ephesians (Pauline School, second generation, ca. 70-90 CE)
(1) 'Apostles and Prophets'
This phrase is now reserved for the founding generation of evangelists and first pastors, who gave the church its normative form of the Christian faith which was 'revealed to his holy apostles and prophets' (3.5; cf. 2.20, where they are the 'foundation' of the church
This is contrary to 1 Cor 3.11, where Jesus Christ is the only possible 'Foundation'.  Now in Eph 2.20 Christ Jesus is "'pushed upstairs" to be the 'Chief Cornerstone'.
(2) Thus the present three-fold ministry consists of, in 2.20 and 4.11:
(a) Evangelists (i.e., church-founders, which is what Paul means by 'apostles'),
(b) Pastors (i.e., localized pastoral preachers, which is what Paul means by 'prophets'), and
(c) Teachers (identical with Paul's 'teachers').
C. Matthew's three-fold ministry
(1) Mt 23.23:  Justice, mercy, faith (as echoing Micah 6.8, what God requires of man)
Justice // Paul's Hope - 'How things turn out' - dependent upon Power of God
Mercy // Paul's Love - the Wisdom of God, i.e., his loving will
Faith // Paul's Faith - i.e., trust in God who has acted in Jesus according to the Scriptures
and who has given us our new Well-being.
(2) Lk 11.49: '... the Wisdom of God said, "I will send to them prophets and apostles ...."'.
(3) For Matthew Jesus is the Wisdom of God, God's true Torah (see Matthew's Son of God as the Torah Incarnate), and so he modifies the Q saying as found in Luke:
Mt 23.34: (Jesus speaking:) "Therefore I am sending you prophets and wise ones and scribes"
(See Mt 13.52: the 'scribe of the Kingdom' who brings out of his (one) treasury (i.e., the Scriptures) 'things old and things new', and note that Paul as an 'apostle' calls himself 'wise', 1 Cor 3.10.)
(4) Matthew:
Prophets // Paul's 'prophets', concerned with Justice, Hope, how things turn out - the Power of God
Wise ones // Paul's 'apostles' (note this substitutes for 'apostles in the Q saying), concerned with Mercy, Love, the Wisdom of God
Scribes // Paul's' teachers', who teach the faith that is believed and which is based on the Scriptures.
D. Summary:
Matthew: Prophets Wise Ones Scribes
Justice Mercy Faith
Paul: Prophets Apostles Teachers
Hope Love Faith
Ephesians: Pastors Evangelists Teachers
Hope Love Faith
All three: Power Wisdom Well-being
IV.  Stress on the need to continue Jewish-Christian ethos and leadership:
(The following data indicate a striving to maintain Jewish-Christian leadership as membership of church became increasingly Gentile in order to maintain a 'normative' understanding of the life in Christ that is anchored to the Scriptures, Israel and the Covenant.)
Stress on Jewish-Christian ethos/leadership:
ca. 52 CE Gal 6.16: 'peace ... be upon the Israel of God [= the Church]'
in letter addressed  to largely Gentile church.
ca. 58 CE Rom 3.2: Jews' advantage as having been above all "entrusted with the oracles of God"
(probably meaning the Decalogue)
ca. 65-70 CE Mk 7.24-30: Syro-Phoenician (i.e. Gentile) woman as "dog"
who eats crumbs that fall from the "children's table" (i.e., Jewish Christians there by right; Gentile Christians by mercy - this is within the Markan Greater Interpolation, which deals with conditions of the Gentile Mission - see Mark 6.45-8.26 and the Gentile Mission.)
ca. 80-85 CE Mt 15.21-28 (re-write of above):
Canaanite woman (i.e. gentile) as "dog" who eats crumbs that fall from their masters' table"
(I.e., stronger emphasis than Mark, therefore probably the stability of the leadership is more threatened, as would appear to be indicated as well by the more frequent  use of direct OT quotes and the stronger emphasis on Jewish elements.)
ca. 70-90 CE Eph 2.12: "commonwealth of Israel"
Ephesians uses "we"-exclusive, meaning Jewish-Christians, and is addressed to "you" (i.e. gentiles), even "you gentiles" (2.11).  I.e., the Gentiles have been brought into the one Israel of the Covenant and the Scriptures.
ca. 78 or 95 CE Rev 2.9; 3.9: "Synagogue of Satan of those who falsely say they are Jews and are not"
(I.e., we are the true Jews, the true Israel.)
ca. 90-100 CE Jn 4.22: "You worship that which you do not know; we worship that which we know, for salvation is from the Jews."
N.B.: This is said to a Samaritan woman, the next thing to a Jew.
N.B.: Jn 4.22 is set in between two universalistic statements which open the appeal of the Gospel to all:
4.21: "Neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem shall you worship the Father"  (i.e., all 'holy places' are abolished, including Mount Gerizim, sacred to the Samaritans, and Mount Zion, sacred to the Jews.  There is now only the 'holy people' as the 'temple made without hands', 2.19.
4.23: "The hour comes and now is when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth...."
(I.e., Gospel available to all, but only on the terms of a continued Jewish-Christian understanding of it, anchored to the Covenant and the Scriptures.  Thus John presents Jesus as the fulfilment of all the universal religious symbols (life, light, bread, water), but undergirds the understanding of what this fulfilment means by anchoring them all to the Jewish feasts and the background scriptures.)