Mark and the Triennial Lectionary
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See at the end of the following: A
summary of views on the lectionary.
Below is a sequence of significant correlations of Mark to the sedarim of the triennial cycle. There are four types of major correlations:
1. Quotation: Mark 10.17-34 Exod 20.12-26 Decalogue
2. Direct reference: Mark 12.26 Exod 3.1-4.8 ‘The Bush’
3. Contents: Mark 1.38-45 Lev 12.1-13.28 Cleansing leper
4. Typology Mark 1.9-11 Gen 8.1-9.17 Baptism/Flood
A corroborative element is the use of unusual or rare vocabulary and phrases occurring in a corresponding seder.
N1, N2, N3, T1, T2, T3 mean, respectively, readings for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of the Nisan cycle, and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years of the Tishri cycle. N1-1 = previous week's reading; N1+1 = following week's reading. H means the prophetic reading (haphtarah) used with the Torah seder.
Bookmarks to Codex B sections below:
|1 (1.1-8)||9 (2.1-12)||21 (5.21-43)||38 (9.28-29)||45 (11.12-19)||54 (14.27-42)|
|2 (1.9-11||13 (2.23-28)||22 (6.1-6||40 (9.33-50)||46 (11.20-12.12)||55 (14.43-52)|
|4 (1.14-20)||16 (3.14-35)||24 (6.14-29)||41 (10.1-16)||47 (12.13-40)||56-61 (14.53-15.47)|
|5 (1.21-28)||17 (4.1-9)||25 (6.30-44)||42 (10.17-45||49 (13.1-31)||62 (16.1-8)|
|6 (1.29-34)||18 (4.10-34)||26-36 (6.45-8.26)||43 (10.46-52)||51 (14.3-9)|
|8 (1.38-45)||19 (4.35-5.1)||37 (9.2-27)||44 (11.1-11)||53 (14.17-26)|
|Mark||Story/Item||Torah Sedarim and Significance (with parallels to LXX Greek)|
|1||1.1-8||John in wilderness, eating honey and locusts; River Jordan, all go to him (1.5-6)||N3: Num 13.1-14.10: Spies
scout out land of Canaan and report; 13.27: gathering of all sons of
Israel in wilderness of Paran; 13.30 (29): only Torah mention
of River Jordan; only TS where have both honey (13.28 ) and
locusts (13.34 ), 'produce' of the Promised Land.
T1: Gen 31.3- 32.4: Jacob [= Israel] sends messengers before him.
N1: Gen 8.1-9.17 Flood narrative: only OT story including
) , ‘heavens’ (οὐρανοί
), ‘wind/spirit’ (πνεῦμα) and ‘dove’ (περιστερά
); cf. 1 Pet 3.20 for explicit use of Flood as baptismal
T1: Gen 32.4-33.17: Esau well-pleased with Jacob (33.17).
|4||1.14-20||Calling of four named disciples to be 'fishers of men (1.16-20)'||T1: Gen 35.9-36.43:
35.10-11: 'And God said to him, "... Israel shall be thy name
... nations and gathering of nations shall be of thee...."';
35.22: 'And the sons of Jacob were twelve' [the first mention of
Jacob's twelve sons]
T3: Deut 4.25-6.3: 4.37: 'Because he loved thy fathers, he also chose you their seed after them'
|5a||1.21-28||Jesus rebuked (ἐπιτιμᾶν) the unclean spirit (1.25)||T1: Gen 37.1: 37.10: Jacob rebuked Joseph for his dreaming of the sun, moon and eleven stars doing him reverence. [i.e., inversion - Joseph typology]|
|5b||1.21-28||'New teaching with authority … obey’ (1.27)||N1: Gen 12-17 Pentecost (6 Sivan) when giving of Torah on Sinai is commemorated; Gen 12-17 falls to beginning of Sivan.|
|Ruth, read at Pentecost, contains 'mother-in-law' 11 of the 13 times in the LXX [Ruth 1.14; 2.11, 18, 19 (bis), 21; 3.1 (2.23), 1, 6, 16, 17]|
Leper cleansed (1.40-44)
|T2: Lev 12.1-13.28: Levitical cleansing of a leper.|
|8b||1.38-45||Healed leper 'going out,
began to proclaim (κηρύσσειν) many things and disseminate the word'
|T1+1: Gen 40.1: A herald made proclamation (κηρύσσειν) before Joseph [Joseph typology]|
Gen 41.1: Joseph is pitted against the magicians, interprets
Pharaoh's dream, and all are amazed.
T2+2: Lev 16.1-end, H: Ezek 22.1-16 (in Massorah): LXX: 22.10 (16): παράλυσις
, hap.leg. in LXX.
|13a||2.23-28||Shewbread not lawful to eat (2.26)||T2+1: Lev 22.10 prohibits strangers, sojourners and hirelings from eating holy things
|13b||2.23-28||‘Sabbath made for man, not man for Sabbath’ (2.27)||N2: Exod 31.1, H: Isaiah 43.7 in all midrashic sources. C. H. Cave, Lectionary of the Synagogue and the Synoptic Gospels (Nottingham BD thesis, 1964), notes that R. Simon b. Menasya, 2nd cent. CE, says: ‘The Sabbath was given to you and not you to the Sabbath’, deriving it from Exod 31.14 and Isaiah 43.7 (Mekhilta on Exod 31.13), not ‘quoting’ Jesus. Since Mark presents this saying in the same setting, it may have already been a traditional interpretation in Jesus’ day, with Jesus giving it a more radical twist.|
|16a||3.14-35||Call of Twelve on mountain||N2-1: Exod 34.1-34.26: cf. 34.2-5: Typology: Jesus =
on mountain; Disciples = Moses.
T1: Gen 49.1-16: Jacob calls his sons to receive his blessing
T1+1: Gen 49.28: 'All these are the twelve sons of Jacob, and their father ... blessed them.'
|16b||3.14-35||Addressing scribes from Jerusalem (3.26), concerning plundering (διαρπάζειν - bis) the strong one's goods or house (3.27)||T3+1: Deut 28.29:
Disobedient Israel shall be plundered (διαρπαζόμενος
) continually as a blind man.
|17||4.1-9|| ‘He who has
ears to hear,
), let him hear’ (4.9)
| T3: Deut 29.4 (3): Moses to sons of Israel: ‘The LORD God
has not given you … ears to hear (ὦτα
) ... until this day’
|18||4.10-34||'For there is nothing hidden (κρυπτὸν), except to be disclosed; nor is anything secret, except to come to light (φανερὸν - revealed) (4.22)||T3+1: Deut 29.29 (28): '... the secret things to the Lord our God but the revealed things to us and our children to do ... this law.' (This is only Torah passage with both these adjectives)|
|19a||4.35-5.1||Jesus asleep on the cushion (4.38)||T2-1: Lev 26.6: sleeping as sign of trust: 'you shall lie down and none shall make you afraid'|
|19b||4.35-5.1||The disciples 'feared a great fear' (4.41)||N1: Gen 31.3: Jacob refers to 'the Fear of Isaac' (31.42, 53)|
|19c||4.35-5.1||'And they came to the other side of the sea ...' (εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης) (5.1)||T3+2: Deut 30.13: 'Neither is it beyond the sea saying, "Who will go over for us to the other side of the sea and make it for us, and make it audible to us, and we will do it?"' (Only Torah occurrence - appropriate to mission situation)|
|21||5.21-43||Haemorrhaging woman (5.25-29)||T1+1:
Exod 7.8-8.15: Exod 7.19-21: Moses' plague which
brought blood in Egypt.
T2+1: Num 5.2-3: Send out of the camp everyone who has an issue, male or female.
|22||6.1-6||Jesus rejected in home town||N1+1: Gen 37: Joseph rejected by brothers|
|24||6.14-29||John in prison (6.17)||N1+1: Gen 39: Joseph in prison|
|24||6.14-29||Herod has his brother’s wife (6.17-18)||N1: Gen 38.8: Onan has his brother’s wife|
|24||6.14-29||John’s death (only flashback story in Mark)||N2: Exod 10.25: Moses to Pharaoh: ‘Thou must
into our hand sacrifices and burnt offerings that we
may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.’
(John’s passion is the paralleling precursor to Jesus’ passion. Here it immediately precedes the Messianic Passover feeding, as the slaying of the lamb [= Jesus] precedes the Passover meal, which is impossible in the passion narrative itself. See the parallels between John and Jesus in John and Jesus in Mark.)
'and that is why the powers are working in him'
6.15: 'others said that he is Elijah, but others is a prophet like one of the prophets'
Deut 34.1 (Moses' death): 34.11: 'none like him for all the
signs and wonders which the LORD sent him to do ...
34.12: 'and for all the mighty power and all the great and terrible deeds which Moses wrought in the sight of all Israel'
of 5,000; 'green grass'
|T1: Gen 1.1-2.3; T2: Exod 11.1-12.28 – the ancient readings for Passover; the Last Supper falls to the same lections on the Nisan cycle. Gen 1.30: 'grass' ( χόρτος), 'green' (χλωρός) - only Torah passage with both words.|
|26-36||6.45-8.26||The Markan Greater Interpolation||This material, largely concerned with conditions of the Gentile mission, is apparently based on the book of Joshua (=Yeshua=Jesus), the entry into the Promised Land. See Mark 6.45-8.26 in parallel with Joshua and Mark 6.45-8.26 and the Gentile Mission.|
|37a||9.2-27||Transfiguration (9.2-8)||N1: Gen 41.1-37: Jesus as God’s Wisdom supplants Law
Prophets: Moses (Law) and Elijah (Prophets) disappear,
Jesus (emphatically) alone
remains as the one to be
heard/obeyed. Gen 41.8: Magicians and wise men are
unable to interpret; 41.33: Look for a man discreet and wise'; 41.39: There is no one so
discrete and wise as
[Two other Joseph-links in LXX text from later in Joseph story, each occurring only once in Mark and once in Torah: ἀνέχειν
, 'to bear': Mark 9.19: '"How long shall I bear with you?"'; Gen 45.1: 'And Joseph was not able to bear it.'; ὲκ παιδιόθεν
, 'from childhood': Mark 9.21: he has been like this 'from childhood'; Gen 47.3A: Joseph's brothers say they have been shepherds 'from childhood until now'.
[Original pre-Markan lectionary setting was likely two weeks later at close of Feast of Tabernacles. This, the ‘feast of booths’ (LXX: ἑορτή σκηνῶν
), was a 7 day (later 8 day) feast, the last day being the most glorious. Themes of the feast include light, booths in the wilderness, presence of God in Temple and Jerusalem (Mount Sion).
Mark 9.2: ‘After 6 days’ , i.e. last day of 7-day feast. 9.3: whitening of Jesus’ garments, i.e., light theme
9.5: Peter: ‘Let us make three booths’ (σκηνᾶς
9.7: a cloud overshadowed them, i.e., as cloud of the Presence over-shadowed wilderness tabernacle and Tent of Meeting.]
(Note the cross-reference to Gethsemane in the phrase: ‘for he did not know what to answer’, Mark 9.6, repeated only in Mark 14.10: ‘and they did not know what to answer him’. The whole of the Vaticanus section, Mark 9.2-27, plus particularly the following section, Mark 9.28-29 on prayer, relates to Gethsemane as well.)
|37b||9.2-27||Healing epileptic child (9.14-27)|| T1: Gen 3.22-4.26;
Gen 3.1-24: The ‘Fall’.
Mark 9.21: Boy has been like this, not from birth, but ‘from a child’, i.e., akin to Gen 3 and Jewish tradition that an initially perfect Adam fell from grace after a short time.
9.22: ‘Into fire and water to destroy him’; Gen 3.3: ‘lest you die’.
9.25: ‘enter into him no more’: the only specifically ‘permanent’ cure in Mark.
|38||9.28-29||Powerful (against sin) only through prayer||T1: Gen 5.1-6.8; Gen 5.1: ‘The Book of the generations of
Adam’, i.e., here is the true (God-dependent) humanity.
Mark 9.28: ‘Why were we not powerful enough …?' 9.29: ‘This kind can come out by nothing but prayer.’ Thus Jesus is the strong one (cf. 9.18, 29) when he prays in Gethsemane, ‘Thy will be done’ (14.36).
I.e., Mark 9.14-29 is the paradigm of the ‘undoing’ of the fall into sin and the restoration of the God-intended humanity.
|40||9.33-50||'"in Gehenna where
worm (σκώληξ) dies not"'
|T2-1: Exod 16.4-27: 16.20: worms in left-over manna; 16.24: no worms in manna for Sabbath [These are two of the three 'worms' passages in the Torah]|
|41||10.1-16||'"Moses permitted to write a bill of divorcement"', (βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι) (10.4)||N3+1: Deut 20.10-24.8: 24.1, 3: 'he shall write her a bill of divorcement', (γράψει αὐτῃ βιβλίον ἀποστασίου) [in Torah only in this seder]|
|42a||10.17-45||Commandments (10.19)||T2: Exod 19.6-20.26. Citing from Exod 20.26 in LXX from Decalogue|
|42b||10.17-45|| ‘to spit’ (ὲμπτύειν
) ‘to scourge’ (μαστιγοῦν
) ( 10.34)
| N3+1: Deut 24.9-25
end. Deut 25.9: ‘to spit’ (ὲμπτύειν
) [Isaiah 50.6: ἐμπτεύσμα
, ‘spit’]; Deut 25.2, 3 (bis): ‘to scourge’ (μαστιγοῦν
) [Isaiah 50.6: μάστιξ,
‘scourge’]. The use of the verbs points to the Torah passage as the direct background.
|42c||10.17-45||‘to give his life a ransom’ (10.45)||T2: Exod 21.2-22.23: Exod 21.30: ‘to give a ransom of his life’ I.e., Isaiah 52..13-53.12 is not the direct background; cf. above on Mark 10.34.|
|43||10.46-52||Bartimaus 'cast off
garment', (ἀποβαλὼν), (10.50)
|N3+1: Deut 26.1-end: 26.5 LXX: '"my father abandoned Syria"', (ἀπέβαλεν) The only occurrences of the verb in Mark and the Torah.|
|44a||11.1-11||Entry to Jerusalem||Falls to Dedication, 25 Kislev, on ‘lectionary time’ as per F. C. Burkitt (JTS xvii, pp. 139 ff.); cf. D. E. Nineham, Saint Mark, p. 293.|
|44b||11.1-11||Mount of Olives (11.1)||N1+1: Gen 49.27 with H: Zech 14.4: ‘And his [= the LORD’s] feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives’ [the only OT occurrence of‘ Mount of Olives’]|
|44c||11.1-11||'"a colt tied"', (πῶλον δεδεμέον), (11.2, 4)||N1: Gen 49.1-26: 49.11: Judah 'binding his foal to the vine', (δεσμεύων πρὸς ἄμπελον τὸν πῶλον αὐτοῦ) The only occurrences in Mark and the LXX.|
|45a||11.12-19||'Seeing a fig tree a far off' (11.13a)||T3-1: Num 19.1-20.13: 'It is no place ... of figs' (20.5)|
|45b||11.12-19|| Ravaging the Temple
|T1: Gen 19.1-end: The LORD overthrows Sodom and Gomorrah, with H: Malachi 3.18-4.6: ‘Lest I come and smite with a curse’, on ‘the Day of the LORD’.|
of the fig tree
|N2-1: Lev 23.1-25.5:
On the feast of Tabernacles: 'And on the first day you shall take
goodly fruit of the trees' (23.40)
N2: Lev 26.1-end: 26.4: 'If you walk in my ordinances ... the trees of the field shall yield their fruit'; 26.20: 'the tree of your field will not yield its fruit'
|46a||11.20-12.12||'they saw the fig
withered from the roots'
(ῥιζα, root - one of three occurrences in Mark)
|N3+1: Deut 29.1-30.10: 29.18 (17): 'Lest there be in you a root springing up with gall and bitterness' - the Lord will root him out. [ῥιζα, root, occurs only once in the Torah]|
|46b||11.20-12.12||"a man planted a vineyard" (ἀμπελῶνα φυτεῖν, to plant a vineyard) (12.1)||N3: Deut 28.1-end: 28.30, 39: 'thou shalt plant a vineyard...; 28.30: '...and not gather the grapes'; 28.39: '...and not drink the wine' [two of the four vineyard-planting passages in the Torah]|
|47a||12.13-40|| ‘Have you not read in the
Book of Moses, in ‘the
|N1: Exod 3.1-4.18: (Exod 3.6 cited.)|
|47b||12.13-40|| ‘… thou shalt love the Lord
thy God with all thy heart
and with all thy soul …’
[(Deut 6.4-5] (12.29)
|N3: Deut 29.1/9-30.10. 30.6: ‘And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.’|
|49||13.1-31||The Son of Man "shall send forth the angels , and gather together his elect from the four winds ..." ( to send the angel, 13.27 - ἀποστέλλειν τὸν ἂγγελον - one of two times in Mark)||T1: Gen 24.1-41: 24.7: 'Lord the God of heaven and the God of the earth ... will send his angel ...' (occurs in six sedarim)|
|51||14.3-9||myrrh (μύρον) (14.3, 4, 5)||T2-1: Exod 31.1-32.15: 30.25: myrrh - component of a 'holy anointing oil' (30.25) for anointing the tabernacle, ark, etc. (30.26-28). [The only Torah passage.]|
|53a||14.17-26||Last Supper||N1: Gen 1.1-2.3; N2: Exod 11.1-12.28 (Passover readings; cf. 6.30-44 above.)|
|53b||14.17-26||'This is my blood (αἷμα) of the covenant' (14.24)|| N2: Exod 11.1-12.28:
Exod 12.7, 13 (bis), 22 (bis), 23: On blood
for the doorposts and the passing-by
T2: Exod 34.1-26: Exod 34.25: "Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifices with leaven, neither shall the sacrifices of Passover remain until the morning."
|53c||14.17-26||"Truly I say to you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine (ἄμπελος), until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God" (14.25)||N3-2: Num 6.1-21: Num 6.2: 'The one who vows to separate himself with purity to the Lord ... shall not eat of the things that come from the vine while under the vow.'|
|54||14.27-42||"My soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death" (περίλυπος) (14.34)||N1+1: Gen 3.22-4.26: Gen 4.6: God to Cain: "Why art thou become so sorrowful ...?" [The only Torah passage with περίλυπος]|
|55a||14.43-52||'Immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived ...' (ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλούντος|) (14.43)||T1-1: Gen 28.10-29.30: Gen 29.6A, 9: 'While he was still speaking to them, behold, Rachel the daughter of Laban came ...' [This is the only Torah passage with the phrase. I believe the interest lies in the mention of Laban, who, in Jewish Passover tradition, tried to kill off all Israel 'in the loins of our father, Jacob', so that here Judas is likened to Laban.]|
|55b||14.43-52||Judas: "It is the one whom I shall kiss" (φιλεῖν, to kiss) (14.44)||T1-1: Gen 28.10-29.30: Gen 29.13: 'Laban embraced and kissed Jacob.'|
|56-61||14.53-15.47||Trial and crucifixion||Ruddick concludes these sections were read in the week of unleavened bread, with Mark 16.1-8 being read on Easter Day.|
|62a||16.1-8||"Who shall roll away the stone...?" (16.3) (ἀποκυλίειν τὸν λίθον , to roll away the stone)||T1-2: Gen 28.10-29.30: Gen 29.3, 8, 10: regarding rolling away the stone from the mouth of the well. [The only Torah use of the phrase]|
|62b||16.1-8||Young man (νεανίσκος), seated, clothed, proclaiming risen Lord (as one newly baptised into Christ’s death)||
N1: Gen 5.1-6.8. Gen 5.1: ‘Book of the generations of Adam’,
N2: Exod 14.15-16.3: Crossing of Red Sea and Moses’ song of triumph (cf. 1 Cor 10.1 ff. for explicit use of this as baptismal type).
[See this with ‘after three days’ of Mark 8.31; 9.31; 10.34 (peculiar to Mark in the passion sayings); Israel crossed the Red Sea (in Jewish tradition) three days after the Passover.]
Mark 10.38, 39; ‘drink cup’ followed by ‘be baptised’; i.e. the baptism follows after the cup of Supper (14.23 f.), Gethsemane (14.36) and cross (15.36), so the baptism encompasses his death and is followed by resurrection
Mark 14.51-52: ‘young man’ (νεανίσκος
– the only other occurrence in Mark) disrobes for baptism into Christ’s death, then raised with him in resurrection (clothed with the new baptismal robe, as implied by ‘putting on Christ’ imagery associated with baptism in Gal 3.27; cf. also Rom 13.12, 14; 2 Cor 5.3?; Eph 4.24; 6.11, 14; Col 3.10, 12).
See Mark’s use of ‘to raise’ (ἐγείρειν
), the latter especially in healings, as in 1.31, 2.9-12, 3. and 5.41,which all involve entering into a new quality of life.
‘Young man’ (νεανίσκος
) appears to be a quasi-technical term for a new or would-be Christian in 1 John 2.13, 14, and Matt 19.20, 22; possibly in Luke 17.14, but not in Acts 2.17; 5.10; 23.18, 22.
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A Summary of views on the Lectionary
(The following is drawn from the study submitted to JBL in 1992.)
Over the years various attempts
have been made to show a sequential correlation of Mark or other gospels to one
or more forms of Jewish synagogue lectionary or, more loosely, to the Jewish
liturgical year.1 None of these has been generally accepted,2
and some scholars have concluded that the whole enterprise is doomed to failure.3
One of the main queries raised has been over the actual existence of any set lectionary in the first century CE, since no one has been able to show unambiguous evidence for one. The basis of this present attempt [as given above] is akin to the demonstration of the products of atomic disintegration in the Wilson cloud chamber wherein the particles themselves were not seen but left vapour trails thus proving their existence. Similarly, if a sufficiently striking overall correlation between the Codex B sections of Mark and a sequence of known Pentateuchal sedarim can be demonstrated, then this should suffice to settle the issues of both the existence of a [1st century CE] synagogue lectionary [usage] and of Mark as lectionary-based.
[I believe the materials presented above accomplish this. They are substantially fleshed out compared to the article sent to JBL in 1992.]
1 P. P. Levertoff, "Special Introduction [to Matthew]", A New Commentary on Holy Scrtiptures (edd. C. Gore, H. L. Goudge, and A. Guillaume; New York and London: Macmillan, 1928) Part III, 128-129; R. G. Finch, The Synagogue Lectionary and the New Testament (London: SPCK, 1939); P. Carrington, The Primitive Christian Calendar (Cambridge: CUP, 1952), According to Mark: A Running Commentary on the Oldest Gospel (Cambridge: CUP, 1960); A. Guilding, The Fourth Gospel and Jewish Worship (Oxford; OUP, 1960; C. T. Ruddick, Jr, "Behold, I Send My Messenger", JBL 88 (1969), 381-417; M. D, Goulder, Midrash and Lection in Matthew (London: SPCK, 1974), The Evangelists' Calendar (London: SPCK, 1978).
Ruddick's presentation is based on the Codex Vaticanus divisions of Mark and the Palestinian triennial lectionary, using the first year (plus two months of the second year) of both Nisan and Tishri cycles.
Goulder's work is based on the Codex Alexandrinus divisions and the one-year Babylonian lectionary. On this basis in his second book Goulder says, "Mark started in October, and what is theuse of that? Six-and-half-month calendars have no sale...." (The Evangelists' Calendar 16). It did not occur to Goulder that he might have the wrong model, and when, in 1980, I called his attention to Ruddick's article (which he had never noticed), he dismissed it out of hand.
2 Among critiques of Carrington's work are C. f. Evans, JTS, n..s., 14 (1963) 142, and R. P. Martin, Mark: Evangelist and Theologian (Exeter; Paternoster Press, 1972) 85-87. The chief detailed critique of Guilding is L. Morris, The New Testament and the Jewish Lectionaries (London: Tyndale Press, 1964). See also L. Crockett, "Luke iv.16-30 and the Jewish Lectionary Cycle: A Word of caution", JJS 17 (1966) 13-46; J. Heinemann, "The Triennial Lectionary Cycle", JJS 19 (1968) 41-48. The most thoroughgoing critique is that of L. Morris, "The Gospels and the Jewish Lectionaries", Gospel Perspectives: Studies in Midrash and Historiography (3 vols., ed. R. T. Francis and D. Wenham; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1983) 3.129-156.
3 Heinemann (op. cit., 41) concludes that "it is not merely a case of being obliged to use caution in supposing that a fixed triennial lectionary cycle was in existence in the second - or first - century; but rather that such a hypothesis contradicts all available evidence, and belongs clearly to the realm of fiction". [Part of Heinemann's argument is that the Talmud (B. or J.) shows no consistent pattern thus 'proving' that there was no lectionary in the 1st century. But this is arguing from the 5th century CE, with there having been plenty of opportunities for lectionary variations in the intervening centuries, and thus 'proves' nothing pro or con.] "All lectionary theories have been completely demolished", is the judgement of J. Duncan M. Derrett (The Making of Mark: The Scriptural Bases of the Earliest Gospel [2 vols.; Shipston-on-Stour, England: P. Drinkwater, 1985] 22).
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