Detailed notes on the Sedarim and Haphtaroth drawn from C. H. Cave's Theses
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These are the notes which I extracted in or about 1970 from the theses of Cyril H. Cave, The Lectionary of the Synagogue and the Epistle to the Hebrews (Nottingham MA thesis, 1962) [LEH] and The Lectionary of the Synagogue and the Synoptic Gospels (Nottingham BD thesis, 1964) [LS&SG]. Generally they are drawn from the latter, and they are far from complete. In the MA thesis, as I remember it (2005), Cave was tending to concentrate on which divisions in the masoretic text indicated by שׂwere sedarim actually used, while his BD thesis utilized among other sources the Bodleian manuscript, MS 27273, for more accurate determination of haphtaroth.
Cave notes (LS&SG, 102) that wherever an H began, it was not unusual to include in the exposition verses from the same chapter.
NOTE: I have written Hebrew words with hyphens between each two letters to prevent
the web coding (html) from reversing their order.
Here are bookmarks for the notes below on Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy
41.2-14. BR xli.1: sermon of R. Eliezer,
preached before R. Yohanan b. Zakkai in Jerusalem before destruction of the
Temple, describes Abraham as 'the father of proselytes' as their prototype in
that he rejected idolatry (ם-י-ר-ג-ה י-ב-א) (LS&SG 27)
? Matt 2.1-2 Story of the Magi 'from the east' etc.
Heb 2.16 & Heb 7 (LEH 85 ff.)
Gen 15.1 H: Ezek 1: Apocalypse of Abraham, chap. x - connects Gen 15 and vision of Ezek 1. Sir. 49.8 appears to know of this.
Ezek 1 - strong association with Exod 19 (revelation at Sinai); in NT Ezek 1 only in Acts 2 and Rev 4, both connected with Shabuoth by use of Exod 19.
Gen 18.17 H: Isa 51.16 H parallels Sodom and Jerusalem - both sinned, but restoration promised for Jerusalem.
Gen 19.1 H: Judg 19.16 ff. Early H, later interdicted? T.Meg. iv,31 (Büchler vi,3)
H: Isa 17.14 (& Ps 78) - cf. Num 5.1, but cf. Rabbinowitz: Mishnah Megillah, pp. 132 ff.
Gen 19.24 // Ps 16 - read at same time? (Guilding's suggestion)
Gen 22.1 Binding of Isaac - cf. Jewish Encyclopaedia, i. 303, on its important place in liturgy.
TS reading for RH (T Meg iii,6; b. Meg. 31a) which gave rise to tradition that Rachel was remembered at RH (b. R.H. 10b).
Gen 25.19 H: Isa 65.23 - contains allusion to the destroyed Temple, based on Isa 66.1.
Gen 26.12 H: Isa 62.8 - 62.8 // Gen 26.14 - reference to envy of Philistines. No longer will Irsael's enemies possess her corn.
Gen 30.22 1st Tishri: The only day in the Priestly Code described as a day of memorial. Trumpet-blowing, in Priestly Code generally, is for a memorial before God (Norman Snaith, Jewish New Year Festival, p. 150).
Belief that Rachel was remembered at RH: b. RH 10b. Cf. also H. St J. Thackeray, 'The Song of Hannah, etc.' JTS (os) 16 (1915), pp. 177 ff.
1) H: 1 Sam 1.11 - early H - cf. Büchler, vi, 20 ff.
3) H: Isa 25.8: RH theme of resurrection. 2 TB sections: Buber, Genesis, p. 155 sections ז-י and ח-י: God will 'swallow up death for ever', the graves will be opened, and Israel will be restored to its own land.
Gen 31.1 1) H: Jer 30.10 H&TS: 'Jacob shall return'
2) H: Mic 6.3-7.20 Mic 7.19 ff. connected with details of Gospel accounts of John's baptism in Jordan, according to suggestion by Robert Eisler, The Messiah Jesus and John the Baptist according to Flavius Josephus' 'Capture of Jerusalem' (Methuen), pp. 267 f.
Gen 32.3 1) H: Obad 1-21 Par VaYishlach begins here and Mas give H Obad 1-21 for Par.
2) H: Isa 21.11 R. Meir applied 21.11 to Rome - j. Ta'an. 64a.
Gen 35.14 Targum (J) on Gen 35.14 mentions that Jacob made the offering, 'for so it was to be done at Sukkoth' (LS&SG, 46 f.)
Gen 35.9 2) H: Isa 43.1 // mention of Jacob - Israel.
3) H: 2 Sam 16.21 ff.: Büchler, vi,3: cj because of parallel between Absalom's act in 2 Sam 16.21 f. and Reuben's act in Gen 35.22, but no confirmation from other sources.
Gen 37.1 1) H: Amos 2.6 H to Par. Va Yesheb. H: Israel condemned for selling righteous for silver - cf. TS 37.28 F.
3) H: Hos 12.1-13.10: Sermon in Y: verbal tally, with general reference to Jacob, seems to have included Hos 14.9-10.
LEH HH: Isa 32.18 ff., verbal tally, T, BR, SB
Jer 38.7 ff., s (content parallel), Mas only (good fit to 37.1 on Joseph in pit).
N.B.: LS&SG 1) Ignores the above HH given in LEH for TS 37.1.
2) Ignores Gen 38.1 (since all HH given in LEH for 38.1 actually fit 37.1 - mix up somewhere!
Gen 44.18 1) H: Jer 30.21: 'their prince will draw near ... and the anger of the LORD shall not return' // TS v. 18.
3) H: Ezek 37.16 H to Par. VaYiggash. Prophesies union of Judah and Joseph, i.e, Ephraim, after God has gathered Israel from lands of dispersion // gathering of Israel, i.e. Jacob and Joseph in TS.
Gen 44.28/29 Mention of Jacob's illness in 47.29 enough to transfer the AC to 47.28.
Gen 46.28 2) H: Zech 11.1 Y item: concerns blessing of Sabbath light and turns on Zech 11.1 (due to Hanukkah influence?).
Gen 48.1 1) H: 1 Kings 2.1 //between last illnesses of Jacob and David.
2) 2 Kings 13.14 //s death of Elisha.
Gen 49.1 TS includes Blessing of Jacob
1) H: Mic 2.12 verbal tally: name of Jacob.
Exod 1.1 'swarm'
of Israelites which enter Egypt; recounts rise of 'new king' and
beginning of oppression.
1) H: Ezek 16.1 Fine // TS vv. 2-6.
2) H: Ezek 20: Reference to 'the day in which I chose Israel ... in the land of Egypt'.
3) H: Isa 27.6: Targum to H reflects Exod 7.1; Isa 27.7 reminiscent of Egyptians; fate.
4) H: Jer 1: No apparent connection with TS.
Exod 3.1 H. St J. Thackeray, The LXX and Jewish Worship, 50 ff.: early catchwords embedded in the Psalm of Habakkuk; otherwise Mark 12.20's reference to 'the Bush' is the earliest reference to the custom of labelling each section according to its contents (LS&SG, 54).
1) H: Isa 40.11 T.: // between Moses who led Jethro's flock into wilderness for protection and who was, ergo, chosen to lead God's flock, Israel.
Exod 4.18 2) H: 2 Sam 15.7` Verbal // and homiletic connectrion between v. 9 and Pharaoh's refusal to let people go.
Exod 4.27 Why shift to TS 4.18? Perhaps because inauspicious to end TS with memory of Moses' neglect to fulfil a commandment (LS&SG, 55).
Targum (O) on 4.26: 'But for the blood of this circumcision, my husband would have been condemned to die.' - i.e. the popular meaning of 4.26 was as a quite unhappy ending.
H: Hos 2.14: Mann suggests 2.16, but 2.14 gives better // and Y item begins with 2.14.
Exod 6.2 1)H: Isa 42.8: Promise of redemption // in TS and H.
Exod 7.1 Targum to Exod 8.1: See, I have appointed thee a master with Pharaoh.
Y: '... you are my messenger, and a man's messenger is as himself'.
Exod 10.1 1) H: 1 Sam 6.6 First verse is commentary on TS.
Exod 11.1 2) H: Haggai 2.6 // in promise: 'Yet once more I shall shake the heavens and the earth.'
3) H: Isa 6.13 Early liturgical sources examined by Mann. Tally: verbal and slight, by ד-ו-ע in TS & H.
Exod 12.1 Portion for Sabbath ש-ד-ח-ה (Hachodesh). It was read on Nisan 1 or pr3exeding Sabbath is Nisan 1 was a Sabbath. Contains the Law of Pesach, and was a fitting yearl;y introduction to the feast.
Exod 12.21 Not TS in Mas, but no sections in SR based on 12.21.
H: Isa 31.5 Would be suitable H; verbal tally with TS.
Exod 12.29 2) H: 2 Kings 19.35: 'And it came to pass that night that the angel of the Lord wnt forth and smote the camp of the Assyrians.' Good s to TS, but only in this verse.
Exod 12.43 TS - Pesach as distinctly Jewish observance.
H: Isa 65.3 - speaks of day when all shall come to Jerusalem, 'for my house shall be called an house of prayer for all nations.'
Exod 13.1 2) H: Jer 31.8 // going out from Egypt and gathering of scattered Israel. Ergo, probably early H.
Exod 13.17 Par. beShalach begins here. H: Judges 4.4-5.31 (Ashkenazi)) or 5.1-31 (Sephardi).
Judges 5.1-31 probably H to Exod 15 in TC, which is also a song of triumph.
Exod 13.17 later reading for the 7th day of Pesach, and it is difficult to decide if there was a TS here.
H: Isa 45.13 ff. &/or Isa 10.32 ff. are Mann's conjectures from Midrashic data.
Exod 14.15 1) H: Joshua 24.7: 24.7 is direct allusion to Exod 14.20.
2) H: Isa 65.24 Homiletic // between TS ('wherefore criest thou unto me?') and H ('Before they cry I will answer').
Exod 16.1 Büchler, v, 436: notes date given in 1st v. and suggests read on 2ndf or 3rd Sabbath in Iyyar.
H: Isa 49.10 - Büchler's suggestion; good //s.
Exod 18.1 Begins Par. Yithro. In Targum (J) on 18.6 Jethro says to Moses: 'I, thy father-in-law, have come to thee to be a proselyte, and if thou wilt not receive me on my own act, receive me for the sake of my wife and her two sons ..;. And Moses ... made him a proselyte.' (Etheridge, J. W., The Targums on the Pentateuch, i, p. 505.) Subsequently (v. 12) Jethro took part in Israel's worship (cf. Guilding 224).
l) H: Isa 33.13 Targum (O) to 1st verse recognizes the difference between Israelites and proselytes: 'Hear, ye righteous (א-י-ק-י-ד-צ) that have kept my Law from the beginning, ... and ye that have recently returned
(ב-י-ר-ק א-ת-י-ר-ו-א-ל) to the Law.' This theme of the ם-י-ר-ג who draw near and become proselytes is frequent in the Midrashic items.
Exod 19 See above on Gen 15.1.
Exod 22.25 1) H: Ezek 18.17 Mann, p. 475, gives as earliest H.
Verbal tally: TS: ך-ש-נ ... י-נ-ע-ה ; H: ך-ש-נ ... י-נ-ע-מ, but v. 17 interrupts sentence in Ezekiel. Good //s if H begins with vv. 14-17. That it was later extended is attested by the Mid material.
Exod 25 ff. - end: Except for Exod 32-34, the rest of Exodus concerns making Sanctuary in Wilderness.
Exod 25 1) H: Hag 2.8 The Qal vaChomer (from lesser to greater) of first two verses of H makes good comment on TS. John 2.1-12 (Guilding 183); Matt 2 (LS&SG 228).
2) H: 1 Kings 5.26-6.13: H for Par. Terumah (beginning of building Solomon's Temple, therefore likely early).
Exod 26.31 1) H: Ezek 16.10 Targum explains vv. 10-19 allegorically of the Tabernacle and in this way there are good //s.
Exod 27.20 1) H: Ezek 43.10-17 H to Par. Tetzareh. (Ezekiel commanded to show Israel the fashion of the Temple - good //s to TS, but not in Mid).
Exod 28.1 H: Jer 30.21 Haggadist (on TS in SR) reinforces teaching of H when he claims that in Israel all the leaders, 'rulers, princes, priests, and prophets', are native-born Jews.
Exod 29.1 1) H: Isa 61.6 Compare v.10 of H to vv 5-9 of TS.
Exod 30.1 . H: Mal 1.11 Intrinsic tally between description of altar of incense in TS and pure offering of the nations in H.
Exod 30.11 Became Sabbath Shekalim TS last in 1st c. CE.
Exod 31.1-34.1 Some confusion regarding TSS.
Exod 31.1 H: Isa 43.7: 2nd c. CE R. Simon b. Menasya: 'The sabbath was given to you and not you to the Sabbath' - derived from Exod 31.14 and Isa 43.7, not 'quoting' Jesus in Mark 2.27 (Mekhilta on Exod 31.13 - J. Winter & A. Wunsche, Mechilta, ein tannaitischer Midrasch zu Exodus, Leipzig, 1909.)
Exod 32.7 This section to be read but not expounded (M. Meg. iv.10).
Mann's suggested tentative H: Isa 54.16 Haggadist: the five angels of destruction sent to punish Israel for the sin are: ה-מ-ח, ף-א, ף-צ-ק, ד-מ-ש-ה-ר, ת-יי-ה-ש-מ. The intercession of Moses broke the power of these angels.
Exod 32.11 Read on fast days in Geonic times (6th to 90th cc. CE).
Exod 32.13 H: Isa 28.3 Parallels between Moses who pleads for Israel, and 'Remember, O LORD, how I have walked before thee in truth'. In each case the petition is granted.
Exod 34.1 H: Hab 2.2: SR: Moses felt he committed sin in breaking Tables. God reassured and said second Tables would be more important, for they would contain halakoth, midrash, and haggadah. This is deduced from Hab 2.3 where the phrase
ד-ע-ו-מ-ל ך-ו-ז-ח ד-ו-ע י-כ is interpreted in the sense of an additional vision.
Exod 34.27 H: Jer 31.32 Gives direct reference to broken tables of the Law.
Exod 35.1 Begin Par VaYaqhel.
3) H: 1 Kings 8.55: TS begins with mention of Law of Sabbath; allusion to this in H: 'Blessed be the LORD, who has given rest (ה-ח-ו-נ-מ) to his people.'
Exod 37.1 1) H: 1 Kings 8.8: H installation of Ark in Solomon's Temple //s TS: making of the Ark.
2) H: Isa 41.19 Mid. interprets ה-ט-ש ז-ר-א, 'the cedar, the acacia', as 'he will fashion the acacia' and thus finds a parallel with the TS.
Exod 38.21 Almost any paragraph of 1 Kings 7 or 8 will give //s with these chapters of Exodus (37-38).
3) H: Jer 30.18 Homilies in T relate to the heavenly Jerusalem & heavenly Temple, thus this H.
4) H: Isa 32.18 But homilies in TB & SR discuss 'Shekel of the Sanctuary' and are firmly based on this H.
Exod 39.33 1) H: Isa 30.20 Only tally through ל ה א in both TS & H.
2) H: Isa 60.13 Some Mid.: Since destruction of Zion - Jerusalem, 'all joy is darkened, the mirth of the land is gone' (Isa 24.11), but God will rebuild Jerusalem.
1.1 1) H:
Micah 6.9-7.8 Verbal link of H & TS: ׳-ה א-ר-ק-י-ו .
TS contains burnt offering. H: condemns sin of scant measure. Büchler suggests this is a YK H when 1st Sabbath in Tishi fell on
5, 6 or 7. This H probably substituted for the regular one.
2) H: Ezek 20.41 Büchler, vi, 33 f.: 'The Massoretic division apportions ... Ezek 20.41 to Lev 1.' C. D. Ginsburg's edition of the Massorah gives Isa 43.21.
3) H: Isa 43.21 H reflected in Targum? - interprets י-ל in v. 21 and י-ב in v. 22 by י-נ-ח-ל-פ, a tech. term equivalent to ה-ד-ו-ב-ע (abodah)
4) H: Jer 31.19 Several Petihtoth on this H in VYR on Lev 2.1. 'Ten things are called precious. They are the Torah, Prophecy, Understanding, Knowledge, Folly, Riches, the Righteous, the Death of the Pious, Loving-kindness, and Israel.' Again on Jer 31.20: 'Wherever י-ל is said, it concerns a thing that shall not cease in this world nor in the world to come.'
Lev 4.1 1) H: Ezek 18.4-17 TS: If man sin through error, priest shall make atonement and he shall be forgiven. H: Soul that sins shall die; righteous shall live: man's righteousness not avail for his wicked son. Petihta to this H in TB iii, pp. 78 f.
Lev 5.1 1) H: Zech 5.3-6.14 Tally: ה-ל-א-ה ; TS: sinner who must bring sin offering. H: Prophetic curse of LORD on deliberate sinner. (Targum J. makes Lev 5.1 refer only to false oaths.) VYR vi,1 (on Lev 5.1) on this H in which administration of oaths is discussed.
Lev 6.1 Petihta in VYR vii,2 (on Lev 6,1) on Ps 5.17: 'The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.' God is asked; 'From where do we know that if a man repents it is reckoned as if he had gone up to Jerusalem and built the Temple ... and offered all the sacrifices ordained in the Torah?' The answer is given from the psalm.
Lev 8.1 Talmud (B. Yom. 4a) identifies sacrifices in Lev 90 with those of YK, recognizing affinity between 10.7 and 16.1 (16.1-34 YK reading).
Lev 9.1 1) H: 1 Kings 8.2 //s: consecration of priesthood and dedication of the Temple.
Lev 10.8 1) H: Jer 15.16 //: verbal: ר-ב-ד-י-ו and ד-י-ר-ב-כ. The claim, 'I sat not in the assembly of them that make merry, nor rejoiced', is appropriate.
2) H: Joel 3.13 - would describe the divine judgement as preliminary to God's blessings in messianic age.
3) H: Ezek 22.26 In TS, H and DD (Damascus Document) two distinct antitheses mentioned: 'clean'/'unclean' and 'holy'/'common' (i.e. the loose, unbound, unguarded, cf. 1 Sam 21.5).
Lev 11.1 H: Isa 1.19 ff. Good //s: H: God reasons with his people, offers prosperity to the obedient, destruction to the disobedient.
Lev 12.1 H: 2 Kings 4.42-5.19 Verbal tally: TS: ה-ש-א; H: ש-י-א.
Lev 14.33 1) H: Isa 23.8 Verbal tally: TS: ך-ע-נ-כ; H: ה-י-נ-ע-נ-כ. The Midrash goes on to show that all the seven nations of Gen 10.15 ff. are 'Canaan' because all were 'traders'.
HH for mid-chapters of Leviticus are difficult since //s are hard to find. therefore, choose (until confirmed in NT) on basis of extensive exposition in Mid.
Lev 15.1 (treats of impurity of issues)
2) H: Isa 17.9 (items on v. 11, but to have verbal tally need to start at v. 9)
TS: ו-ב-ו-ז ... ב-ז H: ה-ב-ו-ז-כ ... ו-ע-ז-ע.
Lev 15.25 2) H: Jer 22 Lengthy discussion on fate of Jeconiah, son of Jehoiakim, in course of which Jer 22.19 is applied to him. He was guilty of sin mentioned in Ezek 19.7, ו-י-ת-ו-נ-מ-ל-א ע-ד-י-ו (understanding 'widows' for RV 'palaces'). The item then comments on Jer 22.28 f., and R. Kahana, interpreting ב -צֶ-עֶ as ם-צֶ-עֶ. 'image' as 'bone', comments 'He is like the bone of the skull, which, when broken, is fit for nothing.' (1 Chron 3.17 - he did have children, though not succeeded by them.) Therefore, Cave prefers Jer 22, including part of vv. 18-20 and probably ending with Jer 23.3, 4 (LS&SG 83).
Lev 20.1 This TS was forbidden to be translated or explained (Büchler, vi,3; M. Hag. ii,1). The prohibition applied to Synagogue use).
1) H: Ezek 16: Büchler notes that subject matter of TS very // to Ezek 16, which was interdicted. Therefore Büchler suggests these were TS & H.
2) H: Ezwek 14.1 Given in 2 MSS: Cat. Neubauer d.6 and e.31. We may cp. Lev 20.2-6 with Ezek 14.4-7. Likely early H to TS.
Lev 21.1 2) H: 1 Sam 28.7 Lengthy swection in VYR in name of R. Levi refers to Lev 20.27 and discusses story of Saul and witch of Endor. From general discussion of Rabbis that follows, this almost certainly an H.
Lev 22.26 1) H: Isa 3.10 Only tally is with v. 30 of TS.
2) H: Micah 6.1 Connection: TS v. 26 with v. 1; also //s vv. 6 f. of H.
Lev 24.1 1) H: Zeph 1.12 Assigned to 24.1 by Pesiqta Rabbati; clearly with Hanukkah in mind.
Lev 25.1 Begins Par. Behar in AC. Although the Jubilee was observed only nominally in the time of the second Temple, strict observance of Shemittah (leaving field fallow every 7th year, beginning of RH) was insisted upon (see M. San. v,1; M. BM ix,10. Josephus witnesses to the observance of Shemittah in 135 BCE, 47 BCE, and 37 BCE). Lev 13.1-13 gave divine authority to Moses' exposition of the Law in Deut 15, 'in the fields of Moab', for v. 1 states expressly that Shemittah was given on Sinai. Rashi comments. 'this scripture intends to teach concerning all the words given to Moses. All ך-ה-י-ק-ד-ק-ד-ו ך-ה-י-ת-ו-ל-ל-כ came from Sinai.' (LS&SG, 92).
Lev 25.25 Guilding sees 25.15 as 'the key phrase of the Seder' 25.14 ff.
H: Isa 58.7-59.1 Expounded to show one's duty to the poor by R. Simon and many others.
Lev 26.3 1) H: Ezek 12.20 Büchler vi,33 f.: 'The Massoretic division apportions Ezek 12.20 to Lev 26.'
2) H: Isa 1.19 Q choice according to Büchler vi,36.
3) H: Ezek 34 a Petihta of 2nd c. CE speaks of blessings of Age to Come and quotes Ezek 34.26. It is possible that the TS was was read on a fast day for rain. Cf. article by Büchler, JTS (os) x (1909) 266 ff.
Lev 27.1 H: Judges 11.30 ff. Jepthah made a vow in an improper manner, and LORD answered him accordingly (thus connection both verbal and intrinsic).
1.1 1) H: Hosea
2.1 MHG comments extend throughout the whole chapter of Hosea
Num 3.1 1) H: 1 SAM 2.28 Several items in BMR in name of R. Levi (3rd c. CE) based on this verse, and it is frequently quoted in the Midrash (= BMR). Entirely suitable as H, but no indication of length of lesson.
Num 3.40 H: Isa 43.4 This H is more suitable in substance for Num 3.40 than Num 3.14, since 3.40 speaks of 'children of Israel' while 3.24 speaks of 'children of Levi'. H describes gathering of Israel's sons (v. 6) from far corners of the earth.
Num 4.17 (Par. א-שׂ-נ of AC begins with Num 4.21, but Mas gives TS at 4.17 and Midrashim have items on 4.17; Re sense of narrative, 4.17 is a better beginning.)
1) H: 1 Sam 6.14 TS & H describe duties of the Levites. H tells how Ark of God was brought back from land of Philistines to Kiriath-Jearim. There it remained a long time until David brought it to Jerusalem -
2) H: 2 Sam 6 - a progress described in 2 Sam 6, a chapter mentioned several times in BMR and therefore might well form another H.
In the parallel account in 1 Chron 13.1 ff. the Levites are named and the ensuing discussion reconciles discrepancies in the two accounts. Therefore it is likely that 1 Sam 6 was the older H and 2 Sam 6 the newer H.
Num 5.1 H: Isa 17.10 The MT of Isa 17.10 f. contains several difficulties for the translator, and the item in BMR supposes a rendering nearer to that of the Targum: 'Thou thou wast planted as a chosen plant, thou hast multiplied corrupt deeds. In the place where ye were sanctified to be a people, there ye corrupted your deeds;1 and even when ye entered into the land of the house of my Shekinah, where ye ought to have served, ye forsook my service and served idols ...' etc. The Midash (BMR) says: '"In the day of thy planting thou didst become debased"; Our Rabbis taught. Forty days after Israel received the Torah they made the Calf. How is this? Because God said to Moses, "Moses, do you see how Israel stands and affirms, 'All that the Lord hath spoken will we do and obey (Exod 24.7)'? By your life they stand deep in lies. They will only serve me for forty day. They said one thing, and meant another (Ps 78.36 f.)". Thus it was on the very day that they stood before Sinai their heart was not steadfast with the Creator! Thuis is what Isaiah says, "In the day of thy planting thou didst become debased."'
Geniza MSS give Isa 17.14 as H for Gen 19.1 which was read at the
begining of Tammuz. the reference in the Targum seems to be to
Sinai, a theme that occupies the later chapters of Exodus which were
read in the second year of the cycle at this time (i.e. Tammuz). (LS&SG,
98 & n. 99.
Gibbs: Connection between Gen 19, Isa 17.14, Exod 24.7: Sinai, Temple, Shekinah, Torah & idolatry - all at beginning of Tammuz.
MHG, TB and Siphre have several items on Num 5.1, thus probably TS here
once. TS: re three classes to be excluded from camp: leper, one
with issue, one who contacted a dead body.
1) H: Hosea 4.14 H to Par. א-ש-נ (Num 4.21) according to Cat. Neubauer No. d.3, but it clearly belongs to Num 5.1 according to Büchler, vi,36.
2) H: Jer 4.19-22,30,31; 5.7-9,18. BMR item expounds Jer 4.19f.,22; 5.8,10,12. Verbal connections with TS: v. 19: י-ע-מ י-ע-מ; TS 5.12: ל-ע-מ ה-ל-ע-מ. Subject of Jer 5.7-9 is suitable, hence Cave's suggested ten verses.
Num 6.1 1) H: Judges 13.2 Included in many discussions in BMR. Many references in this section of BMR to Purim and its theme of Israel's delivery from oppression, suggesting tS read in Adar in Nisan cycle. E.g., BMR x,2 uses Judges 4, 5, identifying Sisera with Haman.
Num 6.22 Includes the priestly blessing, the erection of the Tabernacle, and the offerings of the princes. read on 1st Sabbath in Nisan, 3rd year of TC, a detail confirmed by the date in Exod 40.2: 'On first day of first month shalt thou rear up the Tabernacle at the Tent of Meeting.' Priestly blessing much commented on by Rabbis; hard to determine H.
Num 7.48 (Num 7 has 89 verses. Mas gives TS at v. 48. Büchler v,439: In year that 1st Nisan was a Sunday, then 6.22 read the day before. So 7.48 (even though in the midst of description of one incident) would be read on 7th Nisan (Sabbath), since v. 48 begins with the 7th day. [Gibbs: then 8.1 read on 14th Nisan, and scroll ready to read 9.1 on Pesach!]
H: Joshua 6.2 ff. or Joshua 6.15 6.4 tally: י-ע-י-ב-ש-ה ם-ו-י-ב.
Num 8.1 H: Zech 2.10-4.7 given in Mas. and promises God will come and dwell with his people when Temple is restored, and includes promise of the 'Branch'. Whole section interpreted messianically in the Targum. H confirmed by BMR & TB.
Num 9.1-14 raises question of interpolation (as re connection with Lev 10.7 & 16.1 - did Lev 16.1 once follow 10.7 immediately. Was Lev 10.8 ff. interpolated when YK fixed on 10th Tishri?) Similarly Num 9.15 is a suitable sequence to Num 8.26. Was Num 9.1, story of Passover in the Wilderness, inserted here to suit lectionary arrangement whereby Passover occurred in week following reading of Num 8? (LS&SG, 103; Gu. 27 poses same question.)
Num 10.1 TS in Mas. But only small amount of Mid material available, much of H duplicated in BMR & TB. Item in BMR, included in TB, suggests Joshua 24 (which belongs to Exod 14.15, a TS read on same Sabbath in 2nd year, therefore reminiscence.
H: Zech 13.8 ff. Tallies with introductory phrase ם-י-נ-ש --- י-ת-ש and ף-ס-כ. Mid (Mid. TB, Num.p.52 [ז-ט], & BMR xv,14) understands phrase as condemning 'those who serve two deities (ם-י-נ-ש).' These shall be cut off. The H would have fitting conclusion in Zech 14.9: 'In that day shall the Lord be One, and his Name one.'
Cave, LS&SG, 105, summarizes and comments on arrangements of readings in Nisan and Iyyar:
|Sabbath||Guilding, 27 f. (taking Num 10.11 which speaks of 20th day of 2nd month)||Büchler, v, 439 (ignoring date of Num 10.11)||Massorah|
|Nisan||1||Num 6.22||Num 7.48||Num 6.22|
|2||7.18*||*No auithority whatever for these||8.1||7.48|
|Iyyar||1||8.1||11.16 or 11.23||10.11|
|(Büchler's based on reference in Siphre to a year in which 1st Nisan fell on a Sunday)|
One fixed point available: Num 17.1 (MT 17.16) must be read on Sabbath nearest
to Shabuoth. Therefore a conclusion that data in Num 10.11 is without
lectionary significance and allocation of TSS akin to Büchler's is to be
preferred. Therefore, opt for TS Num 10.1 rather than 10.11 on Mid material.
Num 10.1 No Mid data, therefore can't suggest H.
Num 11.1 Very slight evidence ever a TS here. Only Midrash Siphre contains any material. Siphre 86 contains an allusion to Gen 6.2 read at this time (end of Nisan) in 1st year of TC.
Num 11.16 (LS&SG, 107 f.:) Identification of H assisted by Targum (Onkelos) version of Num 11.16;"And both of them prophesied together, and said, Behold, a king will arise from the land of Magog at the end of days, and will assemble kings crowned with crowns ... but all shall perish by the burning blast of the flame that cometh forth from beneath the throne of the Glory ... and afterwards will all the dead of Israel live again." (Jerushalmi has, "Both prophesied together and said, At the end, the end of the days, will Gog and Magog and his host come up against Jerusalem but by the hand of the King Messiah they will fall."1) Each of these versions depends upon Ezek 38.14 ff., while Onkelos shows dependence upon Ezel 37.12 ff. as well. These chapters describe two events that would usher in the final redemption, the resurrection of Israel, and the war with Gog and Magog2 [see further in Jewish Encyclopaedia v, p. 212b.]
Büchler (vi,28 f.) has considered these chapters to be readings for Shabbat Chól haMoed Pesah and Sukkoth (i.e. Sabbaths occurring in the midst of the feasts) [Torah readings for Chwhm' [׳ם-ה-ו-ח] were not accompanied by H unless they fell on a Sabbath. See Mann, p. 419.]. Büchler has drawn attention to "the Gaon Hai (in ו-ב ל-כ, chap. ה-ר-ו-ת-ה ה-א-י-ר-כ) who explains the choice of these HH for Pesah and Sukkoth on the ground that according to the Midrash the resurrection of the dead would take place in Nisan, and the war with the nations in Tishri." Büchler notes that, as in other Haggadic statements, cause and effect have been reversed, and the date iof the expectation depended upon the date on which the passages were read (Cave says, read in TC - Büchler does not put it quite like that).
These two lines of evidence, the Targumim and Chwhm' [׳ם-ה-ו-ח], suggest that an early H for TS 11.16 was Ezek 38.14 f. The theme of the TS is that of the Elders who prophesy, and the Targum (Palestinian) has drawn the content of the prophecy from the H.
Later, the section Ezek 38.18-39.16 was adopted as Chwhm' Sukkoth, and this helps to explain the difference of opinion expressed in b. R.H. 10b as to whether the redemption would take place in Nisan at Pesah or in Tishri at Sukkoth.
Büchler, vi,29: We found that the H for Sukkoth in the third year of the cycle was Isa 4.6. This section treats of the messianic period, and is explained in detail, by the Aggada (vide Baba Bathra 75a; Sanhedrin 92a; Genesis Rabba, ch. xlviii). This gave rise to the idea that the minds of the people should be directed to the subject on Sukkoth; thence it arose that the H for the Sabbath of the same festival should contain a similar protest.
Besides, no prophet describes the time of the Redemption and re-establishment of the State so circumstantially as Ezekiel; and when we remember also that the original HH were derived from this source, we at once arrive at the reason why just Ezekiel 38 was selected as the H for Sukkoth. Once having been introduced for Shabbath Chol haMoed Sukkoth, it was no difficult matter to imagine the idea being carried over to Passover as well. Note in this connection the difference of opinion of two Tannaim, R. Eliezer and R. Joshua (b. R.H. 10b) in the beginning of the 2nd century, which turned on the point as to whether the redemption will take place in Nisan, i.e., Pesach, or Tishri, i.e., Sukkoth.
1 Etheridge, J.W., The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan b. Uzziel, Vol. ii, pp. 374 f.
2 It is now quite intelligible why the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan tro Num 11.26, and also the Targum Jerushalmi should interweave in this passage, an account of the war against Gog and Magog. We found, namely, that in the 3rd year of the cycle Num 9 was read on 1st day of Pesach, so that Num 11 was reached by the following Sabbath of the festival. This led both Targums to introduce in the above quoted verse some remarks about the Messianic age.
vi, 28: We notice that the newly introduced HH for the Shabbat Chol
haMoed (Pesach and Sukkoth) have no application at all either to the
significance of the festival or to the Torah reading of those days, but were
calculated to arouse hopes of a Messianic deliverance in the hearts of the
people at a time when they were sorely persecuted and oppressed, and were in
great need of consolation. This circumstance establishes the Palestinian
origin of the introduction.
The HH in question were
Ezek 37: which deals with the resurrection of the dead and the revival of the Jewish nation, and
Ezek 38: which describes the war with Gog and Magog that was to be the preliminary to the final Redemption.
(as far as understood):
Stage 1: Isa 4.6 as H for Sukkoth in 3rd year.
Stage 1b: This H treats of Messianic period.
Stage 2: Ergo, Ezek 38, dealing with redemption and re-establishment of state, chosen for Shabbat falling in Sukkoth. Added in Palestine during 'hard times' from oppressors.
Stage 2b: Ezek 37 also added - at Sukkoth-time?
Stage 3: (One or) both readings introduced for Shabbat Chol haMoed Pesach.
Stage 4?: Targums (O & J) interweave Num 16.26 and themes of these HH.
Stage 4b: R. Eliezer and R. Joshua debate whether redemption will be at Nisan or Tishri, since these lections read in both places.
Num 12.1 H: 2 Sam 7.4 ff. Heb 3.1-6 argument turns on some words of God's eulogy of Moses at the time when Aaron and Miriam rebelled against him. "My servant Moses ... is faithful in all my house" (Num 12.7; Heb 3.2). Hebrews argues that though Moses was faithful 'in all my house', the Messiah was greater in that he built the house, and the evidence for this house of the Messiah comes from 2 Sam 7.12. The equating of 'house' and 'people' occurs in Targum (O) on Num 12.7: 'My servant Moses; in all the house of Israel, my people, he is faithful.' (Etheridge, Targum ii, 377). If there was a TS here, H would fittingly begin with 2 Sam 7.4 ff.
Num 13.1 1) H: Josh 2.1-24 Connection between TS and H is the mission of the spies, ergo both verbal and intrinsic. BMR & TB record an item with Josh 2 as H. The introductory question is:
:ם-י-מ-י ה-ש-ל-ש ת-ב-ש-ל ם-ד-ו-ק ל-ו-ד-ג-ה
Num 14.1 1) H: Isa 45.9 Büchler vi,61 f.: Talmud cites Isa 45.9 as example of short H. On basis of context H belongs to Num 14; on basis of Midrash to Num 11 (v. Yalkut to Isa 45.9). Guilding, 217 f., assigns H to Num 11.33 since πηλός (John 9.6) is found in Isa 45.9. Cave: Likely H assigned to Num 14.1 and Midrash item is misplaced. [LXX: πηλός used 12x to translate ר-מֶ-חֹֹ]
Num 16.1 (Rebellion of Korah & his followers) Begin Par. Qorach and is given in Mas as TS. Büchler vi,19: Section 'apportioned to Shabuoth in accordance with the continuous reading of the Torah.'
1) H: 1 Sam 11.14-12.22 Item in BMR xviii,10 on Num 16.12 using this H. Expounder recalls incidents about Samuel that are not in H (e.g. sacrifice in high place - 1 Sam 9.12 & going from year to year in circuit to Bethel - 1 Sam 7.16). Cave, 111: similarity of subject witnesses to its being an old H.
2) H: Hos 10.2 Büchler vi,37: 'supplied by Karaites'. Cave, 112: appears to be old.
3) H: Ezek 14.12-22 as possible H from Dam Doc ii,11 ff. - section teaches that presence of righteous men among a sinful people will not save the sinners. [Gibbs: cp. Gen 18.23 ff. - Abraham haggling with YHWH over Sodom.]
Num 19.1 H: Zech 13.1 ff. (Cave's suggestion, LS&SG, 113 f.) The Midrash (BMR xix,8, also TB, Num p. 118) includes an item by R. Yochanan b. Zakkai in which he explains to an idolater the rite of Para (purification) by using Zech 13.1 ff. Water of purification causes the ה-א-מ-ו-ט ח-ו-ר (spirit of uncleanness) to flee. 'The idolater went out, and his disciples said to him, "You have put off this fellow with too light an explanation. What will you say to us?" He said to them, "By your life, it is not the dead that defiles, nor the water that purifies. The Lord has given a command. that is enough!"'
Cave, 114: cp. Mark 4.10; 7.17f.
Gibbs: cf. 1 Cor 15.29 ff.
Num 20.14 H: Judges 11.1 [Used at Qumran. Purpose of Qumran community's retreat into the desert was the study (ש-ר-ד-מ) of the Torah, supplemented b y what 'the prophets revealed by the spirit of his holiness' (DSD vii,15 f.). Therefore Qumran knew lectionary use of scripture as confirmed by study of Dam. Doc. Dam. Doc. group interested in Num 21.16 ff., the 'Song of the Well' (Dam. Doc.: CDC iii,16; vi,4 ff.) and interpretation of it was based on ה-ר-ו-ת-ה א-י-ה ר-א-ב-ה (The well symbolises the Torah in BMR xix,26). This is in line with Targum at Isa 12.2 where 'water' is rendered by ת-ד-ח, and 'wells of salvation' by א-ק-ד-צ י-ר-י-ח-ב (elect of righteousness), a style reserved by Qumran for themselves (DSH ii,13; cf. DSD viii,6). Were the two scriptures, Num 21.16 ff. and Isa 6.3 ff., read together at Qumran?]
Num 25.1 H: Joel 3.18 An item in BMR concludes with the initial verse of the H, and another in Midrash Siphre.
Num 25.10 Begin Par. Pinchas in AC
1) H: 1 Kings 18.46-19.1 in Mas. Tally is in TS vv. 11-12 and H v. 14, where both Phineas and Elijah are described as being 'jealous for the Lord o Hosts'. In Midrash Phineas is identified with Elijah and is said to have passed alive into heaven. Büchler believes this is the older of the two H.
2) H: Mal 2.5: Tally in phrase 'covenant of peace' appearing in both TS and H.
Num 26.52 H: Joshua 17.4 This is an old H. Both TS and H describe the division of the land. Extent of H not certain. BMR xxi,9 includes in its discussion Josh 18.6 and 19.51. The latter (19.51) would form a good conclusion; 'So they made an end of div9iding the land'. (LS&SG 116).
Num 28.1 (Cave, LS&SG, 116 f.) This chapter concerns the Tamid, the daily burnt offering. No TS marked here in Massorah [and Cave concludes it was not a TS in the TC].
In Temple times vv.1-8 were read on 1st or 2nd Sabbath of Adar, to remember the victory of the plebian Pharisees over the patrician priesthood in the reign of Alexandra Salome (History of controversy set out in LEH, pp. 24 ff.). Whether the section was superseded by Exod 30.11 ff., the Shekalim portion, or whether at one time ther were five Sabbaths of special importance, is uncertain (Büchler, v,453), but the reading of Num 28 was discontinued towards the end of the 1st c. CE.
Several Prophet readings are associated with the chapter:
(a) 2 Kings 12 This H is given in B. Meg. 29b, and is discussed by Büchler vi,8 f., who concludes: 'It was chiosen with an eye to the wording of the Pentateuch portion', and later, because of the similarity between Exod 30.12 and 2 Kings 12.5 (RV 12.4), became the Shekalim H. Now this presents but half of the argument, for while the TS concerns the Tamid, the H is concerned with all the monies that come into the Temple treasury. This emphasis on public money would have formed an admirable comment on the TS after the successful conclusion of the controversy. It is likely, then, that this H is an old H for Tamid.
(b) Ezek 45.12 This was used by 'the Karaites ... who retained a good many of the old haftaras' (Büchler, vi,8). Reference is made to the Shekel and to the people's offering. This also seems to be an old H for the special portion.
(c) 1 Sam 20.18 This H is given in the Massorah, and is the later portion for New Moons, the Torah reading for which was Num 28.11-16. Because of the introductory verse the day was declared a holiday.
These three H have reference to the special use of the chapter. there is some material in BMR and TB, but it is not possible to detect any other H.
We conclude, therefore, that Num 28.1 was not a TS in the TC.
Num 30.1 1) H: Jer 4.2 Suggested by discussion in BMR xxii,1. Subjects in TS and H are similar, for oaths and vows must be made 'to the LORD'. This is only H for which there is evidence in Midrashim.
2) H: Jer 1.1-2.3 Appointed in Mas for weekly portion (Par) Mattoth. Connection is slight (ר-ב-ד); would denote lat H.
Num 31.1 (Mas) Two section in BMR; cannot dtermine H. Targum (O) expands 31.8 - fanciful expansion of slaying of Balaam by Phinehas, likening Balaam to Laban the Aramaean who sought to destroy Jacob our father (and hence destroy his children), who went down to Egypt.
Num 31.25 TS in Mas, but no record of it in the Midrashim. Although it is practically certain that there was a TS between Num 30.1 and 32.1 (69 verses), its start cannot be determined.
Num 32.1 1) H: Joshua 22.22 (An old H) Haggadic discussion in j. Shek. iii,2 considers TS and Joshua 22.22 together. TS: Desire of tribes of Reuben and Judah to settle east of Jordan. They protest that this will not prevent them helping the other tribes to conquer the land. H: Joshua praises these tribes and dismisses them to their own territory.
2) H: Jer 2 (Büchler vi,37). Connection between tS and H is slight. Mas fiv es Jer 2 as H to Par. Masseg at Num 33.1.
Num 33.1 1) Mas gives Jer 2.4-28. TS: Stages of (Israel's) journey from Egypt to Moab. H is suitable.
2) Isa 35.1 ff. BMR xxiii.4 expounds TS in light of Isa 35.1 ff. This H would thus describe triumphal progress of Israel through the desert.
Num 34.1 2) H: Ezek 45.1 BMR xxiii.6: item begins with question: 'Can the land fall?' It continues, 'Is it not written, the land abideth forever?' (Eccles 1.4). The doubters are answered by God, who took the prince of the land and cast him out and gave his people possession, 'as it is said, "'when ye shall cause the land to fall for an inheritance"' (Ezek 45.1). It is understandable that a chapter which sets out the ideal limits of the land should exciter discussion, and several scriptures are considered, but it is doubtful if any was a H.
Num 35.9 Joshua 20.1 ff. TS: Concerns the provision of the six cities of refuge. Josh 20.1 ff. is most suitable as a H.
Num 36.1 Büchler v,440: 'The Talmud (B. Ta'an. 30b) makes a statement in respect of the question when the book of Numbers was finished. The reason is asked there, Why should the 15th Ab be celebrated as a day of joy? The answer given is that on this day permission was given to the members of the various tribes of Israel to intermarry with each other (cf. j. Ta'an. iv,9; b. B.K. 115). The Talmud has in mind Nu 31 and Judg. 21, in which passages this intermarriage is allowed. Thus this portion must have been the reading for the third Sabbath in Ab.' [Italics added]
(All the following materials are drawn from LS&SG, 122-124)
a) Isa 1.1-28: given by Mas as H to Par (Par is 3 TSS: 1.1; 2.2 & 3,23). To none of these three TSS is H suitable. Ergo, why chosen? Was it H to TS 1.1? If so, why? (LS&SG, 122-124 follows:)
H: Recounts God's indictment of Israel and his summons to the nation to a trial by law (vv. 18-20). Link lies in how the TS was interpreted.
Modern commentators divide Deut 1 into 'An Introductory Note, Gerographical and Chronologicaln i,1-5' and 'The First Address of Moswes (i,6-iv,40)' (H. Wheeler Robinson in The Century BIble).
First century Synagogue however saw something ominous in chapter. This interpretation is reflected in the Targumim. Targum (Onkelos) on vv. 1-2 in full:
|'These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel across the Jordan, reproving them because they had sinned in the desert, and had provoked to anger on the plains by the Red Sea , in Paran where they scorned the manna, and in Hazeroth when they provoked to anger because of the flesh, and because they had made the golden calf.'|
Palestinian Targum expands the account into an admonition, and adds the detail,
'Was it not in the mountain of Sinai that the Torah was given you?'
This interpretation is not reflected in the Greek Bible
Rashi's [1040-1105 CE] comment on Deut 1.1 provides the clue: 'These are words of reproof, and he is recounting all the places where they provoked God to anger ... and refers to them by the mere allusion contained in the names of the places.'
Like the Haggadists of the 1st century, Rashi gives to the preposition ב in ר-ב-ד-מ-ב and ה-ב-ר-ע-ב the meaning, 'on account of', 'regarding'. Every reference in the text had its significance, an each of the places named was a place that had witnessed some act of rebellion against God.
If such was the current interpretation, Isaiah 1 would have been a very suitable H, and it is clear that the choice of H followed the interpretation.
Isaiah 1 is also H to Gen 15.1, a use reflected in Targum to Isa 1.2, and in the Jerusalem Targum on Deut 1.1, 2.
b) Jer 30.4 (Büchler vi,37). Begins with verbal tally with TS: 'These are the words', and probably chosen for this tally. May reflect popular interpretation of Deut 1 in Jer 30.5 ff., but no blame is apportioned to Israel and H is generally one of consolation. Midrash Siphre reflects this H, and it lies behind Paul's exhortation in the Synagogue in Acts 13.16.
c) Isa 1.19 (Büchler vi,36, but without giving his authority.)
Cave's conclusions: Isa 1 probably older than Jer 30, but latter known in Pisidia in middle of 1st c. CE. Perhaps Isa 1 reflects Palestinian environment and Jer 30 that of the Dispersion.
Deut 2.2 Items in DR and TB dwell on theme of Esau, and quote 2 Sam 8.14 and Obad 18, 21. Can't deduce H from these items. Palestinian Targum prefers Gebal, the later name for the Edomite mountains, the Seir, and both words are found in Obadiah.
Deut 3.23 1) H: Isa 40.1-26 (Mas gives as H to Par that begins here.)
2) H: Jer 32.16 (Büchler's MS f.6)
3) H: 1 Kings 8.28 ff. (Midrash Siphre and items in DR) may be due to the influence
TS: Recounts prayer of Moses that he too might see Canaan and prayer's rejection by God. Jer 32.16 ff.: prayer of the prophet - fine parallel subject: 'What God is there in heaven or in earth that can do thy works and thy mighty acts?' asks the TS. H: 'There is nothing too hard for thee.'
Targum (O) equates Lebanon with with א-ש-ד-ק-מ ח-י-ב may be due to the influence of the other H from 1 Kings (cf. G. Vermes, in Mélanges Bibliques en l'honneur Andre Robert, Paris, 1957, pp. 316-325, and JTS (NS) ix, 1 ff.).
Hard to decide which of 2 or 3 is earlier, If Isa 40 was ever (and it is unlikely) a H for this TS, it is one of consolation with verbal tally. Also
Deut 4.41 H: Isa 25.2 ff.? (material in Mas, Tb and DR is too bri3gf to form clear conclusion re H) - verbal tally in ר-י-ע. Also parallel between 'that the manslayer might flee hither' in TS, and 'a stronghold to the needy in his distress' in the H. This H suggested by part of a surviving homily in DR li,30.
Deut 5.1 (TS given by Büchler v,441; vi,123 - not marked in Mas; no Mid sections on it.) But must have been TS between 4.25 and 6.4 (= 57 vv.). Did 4.41 supersede 5.1 or vice versa?
H: Joel 2.1 Büchler's suggestion as H for 5.1. Norman Snaith believes 'Deut 5 had no connection with R.H. It chanced to fall on that day, and the Rabbis were severely restricted in their choice by the contents of the Torah. Deut 5, with its Deuteronomic version of the Ten Commandments, may owe its precise allocation for the day to the tradition which rose afterwards, as is the case with the dates assigned in Seder Olam to the various incidents related to the Pentateuch.... In any case, the giving of the Law on Sinai provides the link with the Haftara, since both the Haftara and Exod 19.16 ff. speak of shofar blasts, thick clouds, and a fire upon a mountain' (Snaith, Jewish New Year Festival, London 1947, p. 173).
The fact that 4.41 is known to the Massorah indicates that it was the later TS, so we conclude that 5.1 and Joel 2 ere the earlier scriptures, and were superseded by 4.41 and its H.
Deut 6.4 'The opening word of this paragraph ... sounds the keynote of all Judaism' (J. H. Hertz, The Pentateuch and Haphtarahs, OUP, London, 1951; reprinted Soncino Press. London, 1963, v, p. 82).
1) H: 1 Kings 18.39 Büchler vi,33: 'The Massoretic division apportions ... 1 Kings 18.39 to Deut 6.' This verse would make an excellent one verse א-ח-ו-מ-ל-ש-א to the TS. The H is not recorded in the Midrashim.
2) H: Isa 57.15 Büchler second suggestion (vi,23 f.) was proper reading for Y.K. at which time the TS would be read in the TC. No suggestion in Mid that it was ever H to TS.
3) H: Isa 61.10-62.12 with skips. (?) TB contains no sections on this TS. Those in Siphre are too discursive to suggest H. One section in DR ii,37 in which homily depends on Isa 61.10 ff. Only tally verbal: י-ש-פ-נ, but exposition turns on this word. 'What is the meaning of "With all thy heart and with all thy soul?" With all the souls that he has created within you. R. Meir says, 'For every breath which a man breathes, he should praise his Creator ... R. Simon explains "all the souls" ... "The soul is called by the following five names: ה-מ-ש-נ, ש-פ-נ, ח-ו-ר, ה-ד-ו-ח-י, ה-י-ח."
If this verse, Isa 61.10, was the beginning of a H, it probably extended, with skipping, to 62.12.
Deut 7.12 1) H: Isa 49.14-51.4 General //s of subject: TS: blessings of obedience; H: assurance pof God's remembrance.
2) H: Amos 4.12-5.8 An item in DR iii,2 contains play on ב-ק-ע, and brings in Amos 4.12: 'T. Acha says, God swore an oath that he would never leave Israel ... And how long will I go on in chastening you? To the end (ב-ק-ע), as it is said, "Because I will do this unto thee".' (i.e. until you shall observe my commandment to the end). Here ב-ק-ע 'because', and ב-ק-ע 'heel', are interpreted by the Haggadist to mean 'end', 'future world'. If this is intended as a H, it would begin with Amos 4.12 and might end with 5.8.
Deut 8.1 1) H: Isa 4.6 ff. Büchler believes two HH for Sukkoth named in n. Meg. 31a, and the Qaraite H Isa 4.6, were the HH for TSS that fell at this time in the 3 years of the TC. He assigns Isa 4.6 ff. to this TS. Tally with the festival would be in the word ה-כ-ס. There is no point of contact with the TS, and there are no Mid sections on this TS.
2) H: Jer 9.23-25 (MT 9.22-24) (Mas) Enforces teaching of TS: 'Beware lest thou forget the Lord thy God'.
Deut 9.1 1) H: Jer 2.1 Intrinsic //: TS recalls giving of the 'two tables of stone, written with the finger of God'. H remembers the time in the wilderness when Israel was 'holiness to the Lord'.
2) H: Amos 9.15 ? Only references to Prophets in a series of items in DR is to Amos 9.15; can't name this chapter as H with any certainty.
Deut 10.1 1) H: 1 Kings 8.9 Mann, p. 526, from MS list (without giving reference). TS: grant of second set of tables. This would be excellent example of old short H later extended to 10 verses with skipping probably ended at v. 21.
2) H: 2 Kings 13.23 Given by Massoretic division. point of connection is the Covenant.
2) H: Isa 228.16 ff. An item in DR has as a Petichta Eccles 3.5: 'A time to casta away stones, and a time to gather stones'. This is referred homiletically to Hadrian 'who broke in pieces the stones of the Temple', and to the time when God will rebuild it. The item seems to depend on Isa 38.16 ff.: 'Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation stone', etc.
Deut 11.10 Mas marks TS here, and there are items on it in Sphre. Not easy to determione H, but we suggest tentatively:
1) 2 Kings 18.31 ff.
2) Micah 5.4 ff.(-7.7) Number of tallies with this. Mic 6.14 is quoted, but for a satisfactory ending the Haggadist would prefer 7.7. He would then be able to survey the whole of the section 5.4-7.7, but the reading would consist of 10 verses.
Deut 11.26 Begins Par. Re'eh.
1) H: Jer 21.8 H: 'the way of life and the way of death' // TS: 'a blessing and a curse'.
2) Isa 1.19 ff. Suggested by several items in DR. No indication of extent of this H. Verses 19020 would be good example of a short H.
Deut 15.1 1) H: Isa 61.1, 2 Lengthy midrashic sections in Siphre.
2) H: Zech 11.12 J. W. Doeve, Jewish Hermeneutics in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts (Assen, 1954), pp. 188 f., in discussing Passion Narrative, associates Deut 15 with Zech 11, and possibly he has discovered an old H to the Seder. "Mark 14.10, 11 brings to mind Zech 11.12 because of the money. The tradition of anointing as given by Matthew, Mark and John contains Jesus' saying, 'For ye have the poor always with you .' This at once recalls Deut 15.11, ב-ר-ק-מ ן-ו-י-ב-ם ל-ד-ח-י-א-ל י-כ ץ-ר-א-ה, 'for the poor shall never cease out of the land', containing the root ל-ד-ח. We find the same root in Zech 11.12, 'And I said unto them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my hire; and if not, forbear (ו-ל-ד-ח א-ל-ם-א); and they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver,' Zech 11.12, then, gives occasion to recall a story in which Deut 15.11 is quoted ... A few further links between the story of the anointing and Zech 11 are: Zech 11.11: ך-צ-צ-ח י-י-נ-ע, ' the needy of the flock', cf. Deut 15.11: ד-י-נ-ע-ל, 'to thy needy'; ר-ק-י-ה ר-ד-א, 'the goodly price' (verse 13) may be understood as an allusion to ר-ק-י-ה ר-ו-ד-י-א, 'costly water'; while finally, because of Zech 11.13, 'the goodly price that I was prised at', the story of the anointing formed a counterpart to the betrayal of Judas." [End of Doeve.]
If this was a H, it would begin with Zech 11.12, and the tally would be one of subject.. There are also verbal //s as Doeve has illustrated.
Deut 21.10 1) H: Isa 54.1-11 H for Par. Ki Tetze. TS states law regarding marriage with a captive of war. In H Zion is addressed as a barren and desolate woman, and is comforted, 'for more are the children of the desolate, than those of the married wife'. Ergo, a slight //of subject.
2) H: Isa 42.13 ff. In a Geniza fragment from the Taylor-Schlechter collection (T-S 13,J 2013; cf. J. Mann, Jews in Egypt under the Fatimid Caliphs, i, p. 101; ii, p. 108) there is part of a sermon by the Rosh haSeder, probably Yehudah kaKohen (early 11th c. CE), who was preaching on the weekly portion Deut 21.10 in the Synagogue of Sahragt. His text was Isa 42.13. The excerpt is incorporated in a letter from a certain Joseph B. Elijah to his friend Ephraim. He would, he says, have reported the whole of the sermon, but it would have made his letter too long.
The suggested H contains good // of subject, and Isa 43.12 ff. is probably the older of the two H.
Deut 26.1 Josh 8.30 Reflects Deut 27.4-14 and emphasizes the building of the altar on Ebal and not Gerizim. Latter was Samaritan alteration to verse 4 (27.4).
Deut 29.9 2) H: Joshua 24. A very suitable early H. TS: Moses continues his 3rd discourse to the people, and reviews the different orders before him who are about to enter the Covenant. H: Joshua addresses the people, and they ratify the Covenant.
Deut 30.11 Jer 12.15 ff. TS: It is not difficult to obey God, for 'the word is very nigh thee'. H: Promises compassion if Israel will return.